手工模拟Oracle数据块逻辑讹误引发,ORA-00600:[13013] [5001]一例

上周在客户那里遇到了一例由Oracle Bug引发的表数据块逻辑讹误触发ORA-00600:[13013], [5001]的问题,这里为了更好地说明该问题,于是萌发了手工模拟该数据块逻辑讹误的想法。

基础知识

Oracle中表的数据块由块头、事务槽、行字典、行数据等多种结构组成。 行数据(rowdata)实际是由许多row piece 行片组成的,每一条row piece的头部都有flag、locks、cols(cc)三个标志位。

其中flag标记了该row piece的类型,该flag位占用一个字节,其不同的bit位代表不同的含义,见下表:

ROW_CLUSTER_KEY = 0x80;              KDRHFK
ROW_CTABLE_NUMBER = 0x40;            KDRHFC
ROW_HEAD_PIECE = 0x20;               KDRHFH
ROW_DELETED_ROW = 0x10;              KDRHFD
ROW_FIRST_PIECE = 0x08;              KDRHFF
ROW_LAST_PIECE = 0x04;               KDRHFL
ROW_FROM_PREVIOUS = 0x02;            KDRHFP
ROW_CONTINUE_NEXT = 0x01;            KDRHFN

一般来说最普通的一条row piece是普通堆表(heap table)的未被删除的且无行迁移/链接的,其flag位应为

普通row的flag一般为

Single Row =
ROW_HEAD_PIECE + ROW_FIRST_PIECE + ROW_LAST_PIECE= 0x20 + 0x08 + 0x04= 0x2c

===================================================================================

cluster key的flag一般为

Cluster Key =
ROW_CLUSTER_KEY + ROW_HEAD_PIECE + ROW_FIRST_PIECE + ROW_LAST_PIECE=
KDRHFL, KDRHFF, KDRHFH, KDRHFK =0x80 + 0x2c =  0xac

BBED> x /rn
rowdata[68]                                 @8166
-----------
flag@8166: 0xac (KDRHFL, KDRHFF, KDRHFH, KDRHFK)
lock@8167: 0x00
cols@8168:    1
kref@8169:    1
mref@8171:    1
hrid@8173:0x01800014.0
nrid@8179:0x01800014.0

col    0[2] @8185: 10 

===================================================================================

Cluster Row =
ROW_CTABLE_NUMBER + ROW_HEAD_PIECE + ROW_FIRST_PIECE + ROW_LAST_PIECE =
(KDRHFL, KDRHFF, KDRHFH, KDRHFC) = 0x6c 

BBED> x /rncc
rowdata[0]                                  @8098
----------
flag@8098: 0x6c (KDRHFL, KDRHFF, KDRHFH, KDRHFC)
lock@8099: 0x00
cols@8100:   10

col    0[2] @8102: 200
col    1[8] @8105: Jennifer
col    2[6] @8114: Whalen
col    3[7] @8121: JWHALEN
col   4[12] @8129: 515.123.4444
col    5[7] @8142: w....
col    6[7] @8150: AD_ASST
col    7[2] @8158: 

                    col    8[0] @8161: *NULL*
col    9[3] @8162: .

出现ORA-00600:[13013], [5001]且Arg [f] Code =3 代表这一row piece的flag >0xc0,
也就是该行片同时被标记为key和clustered(row is marked as both a Key and Clustered), 其检验代码为check code 6251。

当flag >= 0xc0 时 会出现kdrchk: row is marked as both a Key and Clustered Block 12 failed with check code 6251

当 0xac >flag >= 0xa0 时 会 kdrchk: row is Key and Not only piece of key Block 12 failed with check code 6255

当 flag = 0x43 是 会出现 kdrchk: C and neither of H or F Block 12 failed with check code 6263

当 flag = 0x83 时 会出现 kdrchk: row is marked both as a Key and being continued Block 12 failed with check code 6254

 

当Oracle进程访问数据块时首先会校验block的sum值并与block中的CHECKSUM值进行对比,若一致则说明该block没有物理讹误。但是光这一项检查是不够的,不足以保证block无误。所以Oracle引入了一些列的逻辑检验,每一种逻辑检验对应一个检测代码(check code),这些检测包括row piece的flag、cols(cc)状态是否正确等。

实际负责这类逻辑检验的函数包括:kdbchk、kddummy_blkchk、kco_blkchk、kdBlkCheckError、kdrchk等等。

这里当服务进程访问到问题数据块,检测代码发现其flag为0xff(KCHDFLPN),该flag从逻辑上讲是冲突的,所以检测代码认为该row piece存在异常,进而会引发update的ORA-00600:[13013], [5001]或查询的ORA-600 [qertbFetchByRowID]内部错误。

这里需要说明一下的是,很多人认为dbv工具时无法检测出逻辑讹误的,实际上dbv、rman、validate structure和bbed-verify均可以检测出一定程度的逻辑讹误,但是最可靠的还是db_block_checksum=true情况下的validate structure [online]验证命令。从另一个角度来说,普通的dbv只能做单一的检测,而无法做到交叉地检验,从而了解表和索引上的不一致问题,但是validate structure online却可以做到。


正式模拟

以上我们了解了ORA-00600:[13013], [5001]内部错误是如何被引发的,那么下面手工模拟该错误也就不困难了,当然这里需要用到bbed工具。

以下我们会创建实验用的tablespace,table,index:

SQL> select * from v$version;

BANNER
----------------------------------------------------------------
Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.2.0.4.0 - 64bi
PL/SQL Release 10.2.0.4.0 - Production
CORE 10.2.0.4.0 Production
TNS for Linux: Version 10.2.0.4.0 - Production
NLSRTL Version 10.2.0.4.0 - Production

SQL> select * from global_name;

GLOBAL_NAME
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
www.askmaclean.com

/* 创建实验用的表空间  */

SQL> create tablespace maclean datafile '/home/oracle/maclean.dbf' size 20M;

Tablespace created.

SQL> create table tv tablespace maclean as select rownum t1,'find me' t2 from
dba_tables where rownumcreate index ind_tv on tv(t1) tablespace users;

Index created.

SQL> update tv set t2='corrption here' where t1=200;
update tv set t2='corrption here' where t1=200
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-12899: value too large for column "SYS"."TV"."T2" (actual: 14, maximum: 7)

SQL> alter table tv modify t2 varchar2(200);

Table altered.

SQL> update tv set t2='corruption here' where t1=200;

1 row updated.

SQL> commit;

Commit complete.

/* 以上创建了示例用表,其中t1=200的记录是之后将会
   手动修改为存在讹误的行             */

SQL> select dump(200,16) from dual;

DUMP(200,16)
-----------------
Typ=2 Len=2: c2,3

/* 通过16进制码可以方便找出该t1=200的记录行 */ 
SQL> alter system checkpoint;

System altered.

SQL> alter tablespace maclean read only;

Tablespace altered.

SQL> select dbms_rowid.rowid_block_number(rowid) bno ,dbms_rowid.rowid_relative_fno(rowid) fno from tv;

BNO FNO
---------- ----------
12 6

[oracle@rh2 ~]$ cp maclean.dbf maclean.dbf.bak

 

接着使用BBED工具找到目标行并实施手工修改:

 

[oracle@rh2 ~]$ bbed filename=maclean.dbf mode=edit
Password:

BBED: Release 2.0.0.0.0 - Limited Production on Sun Sep 18 22:14:59 2011

Copyright (c) 1982, 2007, Oracle. All rights reserved.

BBED> set blocksize 8192
BLOCKSIZE 8192

BBED> set block 13
BLOCK# 13

BBED> map /v

File: maclean.dbf (0)
Block: 13 Dba:0x00000000
------------------------------------------------------------
KTB Data Block (Table/Cluster)

struct kcbh, 20 bytes @0
ub1 type_kcbh @0
ub1 frmt_kcbh @1
ub1 spare1_kcbh @2
ub1 spare2_kcbh @3
ub4 rdba_kcbh @4
ub4 bas_kcbh @8
ub2 wrp_kcbh @12
ub1 seq_kcbh @14
ub1 flg_kcbh @15
ub2 chkval_kcbh @16
ub2 spare3_kcbh @18

struct ktbbh, 96 bytes @20
ub1 ktbbhtyp @20
union ktbbhsid, 4 bytes @24
struct ktbbhcsc, 8 bytes @28
b2 ktbbhict @36
ub1 ktbbhflg @38
ub1 ktbbhfsl @39
ub4 ktbbhfnx @40
struct ktbbhitl[3], 72 bytes @44

struct kdbh, 14 bytes @124
ub1 kdbhflag @124
b1 kdbhntab @125
b2 kdbhnrow @126
sb2 kdbhfrre @128
sb2 kdbhfsbo @130
sb2 kdbhfseo @132
b2 kdbhavsp @134
b2 kdbhtosp @136

struct kdbt[1], 4 bytes @138
b2 kdbtoffs @138
b2 kdbtnrow @140

sb2 kdbr[200] @142

ub1 freespace[4725] @542

ub1 rowdata[2921] @5267

ub4 tailchk @8188

BBED> find /x c203

File: maclean.dbf (0)
Block: 13 Offsets: 5271 to 5782 Dba:0x00000000
------------------------------------------------------------------------
c2030f63 6f727275 7074696f 6e206865 72652c00 0202c203 0766696e 64206d65
2c000203 c2026407 66696e64 206d652c 000203c2 02630766 696e6420 6d652c00
0203c202 62076669 6e64206d 652c0002 03c20261 0766696e 64206d65 2c000203
c2026007 66696e64 206d652c 000203c2 025f0766 696e6420 6d652c00 0203c202
5e076669 6e64206d 652c0002 03c2025d 0766696e 64206d65 2c000203 c2025c07
66696e64 206d652c 000203c2 025b0766 696e6420 6d652c00 0203c202 5a076669
6e64206d 652c0002 03c20259 0766696e 64206d65 2c000203 c2025807 66696e64
206d652c 000203c2 02570766 696e6420 6d652c00 0203c202 56076669 6e64206d
652c0002 03c20255 0766696e 64206d65 2c000203 c2025407 66696e64 206d652c
000203c2 02530766 696e6420 6d652c00 0203c202 52076669 6e64206d 652c0002
03c20251 0766696e 64206d65 2c000203 c2025007 66696e64 206d652c 000203c2
024f0766 696e6420 6d652c00 0203c202 4e076669 6e64206d 652c0002 03c2024d
0766696e 64206d65 2c000203 c2024c07 66696e64 206d652c 000203c2 024b0766
696e6420 6d652c00 0203c202 4a076669 6e64206d 652c0002 03c20249 0766696e
64206d65 2c000203 c2024807 66696e64 206d652c 000203c2 02470766 696e6420
6d652c00 0203c202 46076669 6e64206d 652c0002 03c20245 0766696e 64206d65

找到了t1=200的偏移值为5271

则其fb的偏移值为5271 -4 = 5267

BBED> set offset 5267

OFFSET 5267

BBED> d
File: maclean.dbf (0)
Block: 13 Offsets: 5267 to 5778 Dba:0x00000000
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2c020202 c2030f63 6f727275 7074696f 6e206865 72652c00 0202c203 0766696e
64206d65 2c000203 c2026407 66696e64 206d652c 000203c2 02630766 696e6420
6d652c00 0203c202 62076669 6e64206d 652c0002 03c20261 0766696e 64206d65
2c000203 c2026007 66696e64 206d652c 000203c2 025f0766 696e6420 6d652c00
0203c202 5e076669 6e64206d 652c0002 03c2025d 0766696e 64206d65 2c000203
c2025c07 66696e64 206d652c 000203c2 025b0766 696e6420 6d652c00 0203c202
5a076669 6e64206d 652c0002 03c20259 0766696e 64206d65 2c000203 c2025807
66696e64 206d652c 000203c2 02570766 696e6420 6d652c00 0203c202 56076669
6e64206d 652c0002 03c20255 0766696e 64206d65 2c000203 c2025407 66696e64
206d652c 000203c2 02530766 696e6420 6d652c00 0203c202 52076669 6e64206d
652c0002 03c20251 0766696e 64206d65 2c000203 c2025007 66696e64 206d652c
000203c2 024f0766 696e6420 6d652c00 0203c202 4e076669 6e64206d 652c0002
03c2024d 0766696e 64206d65 2c000203 c2024c07 66696e64 206d652c 000203c2
024b0766 696e6420 6d652c00 0203c202 4a076669 6e64206d 652c0002 03c20249
0766696e 64206d65 2c000203 c2024807 66696e64 206d652c 000203c2 02470766
696e6420 6d652c00 0203c202 46076669 6e64206d 652c0002 03c20245 0766696e

/* 找到指定行的地址为5267,其当前flag为正常的0x2c  */

BBED> x /rnc

rowdata[0] @5267
----------
flag@5267: 0x2c (KDRHFL, KDRHFF, KDRHFH)
lock@5268: 0x02
cols@5269: 2

col 0[2] @5270: 200
col 1[15] @5273: corruption here

修改该flag 为 0xff BBED> modify /x 0xff

Warning: contents of previous BIFILE will be lost. Proceed? (Y/N) y
File: maclean.dbf (0)
Block: 13 Offsets: 5267 to 5778 Dba:0x00000000
------------------------------------------------------------------------
ff020202 c2030f63 6f727275 7074696f 6e206865 72652c00 0202c203 0766696e
64206d65 2c000203 c2026407 66696e64 206d652c 000203c2 02630766 696e6420
6d652c00 0203c202 62076669 6e64206d 652c0002 03c20261 0766696e 64206d65
2c000203 c2026007 66696e64 206d652c 000203c2 025f0766 696e6420 6d652c00
0203c202 5e076669 6e64206d 652c0002 03c2025d 0766696e 64206d65 2c000203
c2025c07 66696e64 206d652c 000203c2 025b0766 696e6420 6d652c00 0203c202
5a076669 6e64206d 652c0002 03c20259 0766696e 64206d65 2c000203 c2025807
66696e64 206d652c 000203c2 02570766 696e6420 6d652c00 0203c202 56076669
6e64206d 652c0002 03c20255 0766696e 64206d65 2c000203 c2025407 66696e64
206d652c 000203c2 02530766 696e6420 6d652c00 0203c202 52076669 6e64206d
652c0002 03c20251 0766696e 64206d65 2c000203 c2025007 66696e64 206d652c
000203c2 024f0766 696e6420 6d652c00 0203c202 4e076669 6e64206d 652c0002
03c2024d 0766696e 64206d65 2c000203 c2024c07 66696e64 206d652c 000203c2
024b0766 696e6420 6d652c00 0203c202 4a076669 6e64206d 652c0002 03c20249
0766696e 64206d65 2c000203 c2024807 66696e64 206d652c 000203c2 02470766
696e6420 6d652c00 0203c202 46076669 6e64206d 652c0002 03c20245 0766696e

BBED> x /rnc

rowdata[0] @5267
----------
flag@5267: 0xff (KDRHFN, KDRHFP, KDRHFL, KDRHFF, KDRHFD, KDRHFH, KDRHFC, KDRHFK)
lock@5268: 0x02
cols@5269: 0
ckix@5270: 2

BBED> sum apply

Check value for File 0, Block 13:
current = 0x0000, required = 0x0000

我们使用bbed的verify命令验证数据块会发现问题flag

BBED> verify
DBVERIFY - Verification starting
FILE = maclean.dbf
BLOCK = 12

kdrchk: row is marked as both a Key and Clustered

prow=0x7f5335f05693 flag=0xff
Block Checking: DBA = 25165836, Block Type = KTB-managed data block
data header at 0x7f5335f0427c
kdbchk: bad row tab 0, slot 199
Block 12 failed with check code 6251

DBVERIFY - Verification complete

Total Blocks Examined : 1
Total Blocks Processed (Data) : 1
Total Blocks Failing (Data) : 1
Total Blocks Processed (Index): 0
Total Blocks Failing (Index): 0
Total Blocks Empty : 0
Total Blocks Marked Corrupt : 0
Total Blocks Influx : 0

使用dbv工具是也可以验证这种逻辑讹误的

[oracle@rh2 ~]$ dbv file=maclean.dbf

DBVERIFY: Release 10.2.0.4.0 - Production on Sun Sep 18 22:27:49 2011

Copyright (c) 1982, 2007, Oracle. All rights reserved.

DBVERIFY - Verification starting : FILE = maclean.dbf
kdrchk: row is marked as both a Key and Clustered
prow=0x7f9ef25f7693 flag=0xff
Block Checking: DBA = 25165836, Block Type = KTB-managed data block
data header at 0x7f9ef25f627c
kdbchk: bad row tab 0, slot 199
Page 12 failed with check code 6251

DBVERIFY - Verification complete

Total Pages Examined : 2560
Total Pages Processed (Data) : 1
Total Pages Failing (Data) : 1
Total Pages Processed (Index): 0
Total Pages Failing (Index): 0
Total Pages Processed (Other): 11
Total Pages Processed (Seg) : 0
Total Pages Failing (Seg) : 0
Total Pages Empty : 2548
Total Pages Marked Corrupt : 0
Total Pages Influx : 0
Highest block SCN : 691691 (0.691691)

 

回到sqlplus中访问之前修改的数据行,触发ORA-600[13013] [5001]错误:

 

SQL> alter system flush buffer_cache;

System altered.

SQL> update tv set t2='correct here' where t1=200;
update tv set t2='correct here' where t1=200
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-00600: internal error code, arguments: [13013], [5001], [52937],
[25165836], [199], [25165836], [3], []

PLAN_TABLE_OUTPUT
---------------------------------------------------------
Plan hash value: 568795662

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation         | Name   | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | UPDATE STATEMENT  |        |     1 |   115 |     2   (0)| 00:00:01 |
|   1 |  UPDATE           | TV     |       |       |            |          |
|*  2 |   INDEX RANGE SCAN| IND_TV |     1 |   115 |     1   (0)| 00:00:01 |
----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
---------------------------------------------------

   2 - access("T1"=200)

SQL> select * from tv where t1=200;
select * from tv where t1=200
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-00600: internal error code, arguments: [qertbFetchByRowID], [], [], [], [],
[], [], []

PLAN_TABLE_OUTPUT
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Plan hash value: 1015724781

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation                   | Name   | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT            |        |     1 |   115 |     2   (0)| 00:00:01 |
|   1 |  TABLE ACCESS BY INDEX ROWID| TV     |     1 |   115 |     2   (0)| 00:00:01 |
|*  2 |   INDEX RANGE SCAN          | IND_TV |     1 |       |     1   (0)| 00:00:01 |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
---------------------------------------------------

   2 - access("T1"=200)

可以看到当正好update到问题行记录时如预料出现了ORA-00600:[13013], [5001]错误,而ACCESS BY INDEX ROWID时出现了ORA-00600:[qertbFetchByRowID]。

解决方案

1.在有备份的情况下可以通过blockrecovery在线修复该问题数据块:

RMAN> blockrecover datafile 6 block 12;

Starting blockrecover at 18-SEP-11
using target database control file instead of recovery catalog
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: sid=144 devtype=DISK

starting media recovery
media recovery complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01

Finished blockrecover at 18-SEP-11

但是请注意如果该逻辑讹误确实是由Oracle Bug引起的话,那么很有可能blockrecover也无能为力,那么可以借鉴第二种方法。

 

2. 第二种方法针对没有备份可用的数据库或者recover数据块不管用的场景,可以设置10231事件并ctas复制该表,但是这种方法可能会丢失有问题的行记录:

SQL> alter session set events ‘10231 trace name context forever, level 10’

SQL> Create table.TABLE_COPY as select * from TABLE;

 

了解更多关于kdrchk函数的信息:

Add check for continued row piece pointing to itself with
corruption description:

"kdrchk: Row piece pointing to itself"

DB_BLOCK_CHECKING = MEDIUM will check for row pieces where the
next rowid (nrid) points to itself (chained row points to itself).
It produces error ORA-600 [kddummy_blkchk] or ORA-600 [kdBlkCheckError]
with check code [6266] (3rd ORA-600 argument).

DBVERIFY reports the same corruption description if the block is corrupt on disk.

RMAN when run with the CHECK LOGICAL option reports it as
     corruption_type=CORRUPT/LOGICAL in v$database_block_corruption.

"ANALYZE TABLE  VALIDATE STRUCTURE" produces error ORA-1498 and trace file
shows the same corruption description.

With this fix in place DBMS_REPAIR can be used to identify and mark the affected
block as Soft Corrupt producing error ORA-1578 and it can be skipped it for DML's
using DBMS_REPAIR.SKIP_CORRUPT_BLOCKS.

 [CM][SG][event 1][domain Q423][mem 0] Joining shared group
  kdrchk: column length 0 but not null
            prow=0x2a97f4d9d6 flag=0x2c column=57
  Block Checking: DBA = 29635651, Block Type = KTB-managed data block
  data header at 0x2a97f4be7c
  kdbchk: bad row tab 0, slot 2
  data_block_dump,data header at 0x2a97d113d8
  data_block_dump,data header at 0x2a97d113d8

 kdrchk: found invalid symbol reference 48
  reference to delete symbol
  valid symbol range [0,78)
  Block Checking: DBA = 411055291, Block Type = KTB-managed data block
  data header at 0x68a3f4
  kdbchk: bad row tab 0, slot 4
  Page 13499 failed with check code 6265

kdrchk: C and neither of H or F
          prow=0x4282803ae flag=0x41
Block Checking: DBA = 322963095, Block Type = KTB-managed data block
data header at 0x42828007c

kdrchk: column length 0 but not null
          prow=0x10021035e flag=0x2c column=40
Block Checking: DBA = 25189259, Block Type = KTB-managed data block
data header at 0x10020fe7c
kdbchk: bad row tab 0, slot 0
Page 23435 failed with check code 6264
kdrchk: column length 0 but not null
          prow=0x1002122e5 flag=0x2c column=40
Block Checking: DBA = 25189260, Block Type = KTB-managed data block

kdrchk:  row is marked as both a Key and Clustered
prow=0xd2bfa981 flag=0xff
File#67, Block#74754

kdbchk: bad row tab 0, slot 0
kdrchk:  no columns, but has one of P or N
          prow=0x934fbffa flag=0x31

DIAGNOSTIC ANALYSIS:
====================
A look at the block dump in the analyze trace file revealed two very
suspicious looking rows:

tab 0, row 0, @0x1ede
tl: 2 fb: --HD---N lb: 0x0
tab 0, row 1, @0x1edc
tl: 2 fb: --HD---N lb: 0x0

The flag bytes in these rows look incorrect.

待修订!

关注dbDao.com的新浪微博

扫码关注dbDao.com 微信公众号:

Speak Your Mind

TEL/電話+86 13764045638
Email service@parnassusdata.com
QQ 47079569