Does LGWR use synchronous IO even AIO enabled?

在Oracle中开启AIO异步IO后可以一定程度上提升数据库IO性能,但同时也引入了丢失commit数据的风险。具体可以参见小荷同学的文章,但是这里存在一个疑问就是redo重做记录是同步写出还是在启用AIO后同样使用异步IO的API,我们可以通过跟踪lgwr后台进程的system call系统调用来说明该问题:


SQL> select * from v$version;

BANNER
----------------------------------------------------------------
Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.2.0.4.0 - 64bi
PL/SQL Release 10.2.0.4.0 - Production
CORE    10.2.0.4.0      Production
TNS for Linux: Version 10.2.0.4.0 - Production
NLSRTL Version 10.2.0.4.0 - Production


SQL> show parameter disk_asynch_io

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
disk_asynch_io                       boolean     TRUE

SQL> show parameter filesystem

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
filesystemio_options                 string      SETALL

[oracle@rh2 ~]$ ps -ef|grep dbw0_G10R2|grep -v grep
oracle   29168     1  0 19:02 ?        00:00:01 ora_dbw0_G10R2

[oracle@rh2 ~]$ strace -p 29168

.............................
io_submit(140140183375872, 34, {{0x7f74ee284e10, 0, 1, 0, 16},
{0x7f74ee290920, 0, 1, 0, 16}, {0x7f74ee286970, 0, 1, 0, 16}, {0x7f74ee290db0, 0, 1, 0, 16}  = 34

io_getevents(140140183375872, 1, 1024, {{0x7f74ee284e10, 0x7f74ee284e10, 8192, 0},
0x7f74ee289710, 8192, 0}}, {600, 0}) = 12

times(NULL)                             = 480509951
times(NULL)                             = 480509951
times(NULL)                             = 480509951
times(NULL)                             = 480509951
times(NULL)                             = 480509951
times(NULL)                             = 480509951
times(NULL)                             = 480509951
times(NULL)                             = 480509951
times(NULL)                             = 480509951
times(NULL)                             = 480509951
times(NULL)                             = 480509951
times(NULL)                             = 480509951
getrusage(RUSAGE_SELF, {ru_utime={0, 417936}, ru_stime={0, 823874}, ...}) = 0
getrusage(RUSAGE_SELF, {ru_utime={0, 417936}, ru_stime={0, 823874}, ...}) = 0
io_getevents(140140183375872, 1, 1024, {{0x7f74ee28c4b0, 0x7f74ee28c4b0, 8192, 0},
{0x7f74ee287290, 0x7f74ee287290, 8192, 0}, {0x7f74ee283988, 0x7f74ee283988, 8192, 0},
{0x7f74ee27fbf0, 0x7f74ee27fbf0, 8192, 0}, {0x7f74ee28a030, 0x7f74ee28a030, 8192, 0}, {0x7f74ee28fdb8, = 22

/* 此处dbwr使用io_submit函数将I/O请求入列,
    io_submit是典型的asynchronous I/O system calls,
    可见Oracle针对数据文件写出已在使用异步IO */

[oracle@rh2 ~]$ ps -ef|grep lgwr_G10R2|grep -v grep
oracle   29170     1  0 19:02 ?        00:00:01 ora_lgwr_G10R2

[oracle@rh2 ~]$ strace -p 29170
.............................
io_submit(139932588023808, 2, {{0x7f4497f423c8, 0, 1, 0, 20}, {0x7f4497f42590, 0, 1, 0, 21}}) = 2

io_getevents(139932588023808, 1, 1024, {{0x7f4497f423c8, 0x7f4497f423c8, 3584, 0}}, {600, 0}) = 1
times(NULL)                             = 480533371
io_getevents(139932588023808, 1, 1023, {{0x7f4497f42590, 0x7f4497f42590, 3584, 0}}, {600, 0}) = 1

以上io_submit system call说明当数据库启用AIO后lgwr同样使用异步IO写出重做记录到online logfile,换而言之当存储crash时的确可能出现redo记录丢失而造成的记录丢失情况。

实际控制lgwr是否使用异步IO的是一个隐藏参数_lgwr_async_io,该参数一般默认为false:

SQL> SELECT x.ksppinm NAME, y.ksppstvl VALUE, x.ksppdesc describ
  2   FROM SYS.x$ksppi x, SYS.x$ksppcv y
  3   WHERE x.inst_id = USERENV ('Instance')
  4   AND y.inst_id = USERENV ('Instance')
  5   AND x.indx = y.indx
  6  AND x.ksppinm='_lgwr_async_io';

NAME
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
VALUE
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
DESCRIB
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
_lgwr_async_io
FALSE
LGWR Asynchronous IO enabling boolean flag

你可能要这样问:”既然该_lgwr_async_io参数默认为false,那么lgwr就应当使用同步IO而非async,这岂不矛盾?”

是的,理论上来说默认_lgwr_async_io参数为false,lgwr应当使用sync。但是在版本10.1.0.2到11.1.0.6存在一个“Bug:8357698 LGWR USES ASYNC IO INSPITE OF SETTING _LGWR_ASYNC_IO=FALSE”:

Abstract: LGWR USES ASYNC IO INSPITE OF SETTING _LGWR_ASYNC_IO=FALSE

PROBLEM:
——–
+ Lgwr uses asynch IO irrespective of the setting _lgwr_async_io=false
and consumes high CPU performing IO poll operations.
+ short stack and truss output show that the lgwr is waiting for asynch IO
completion notification.

This particular problem was dormant for a long time and highly affects the
database performance.

DIAGNOSTIC ANALYSIS:
——————–
LGWR Shortstack
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

aiowait()+540<-skgfospo()+216<-skgfrwat()+80<-ksfdwtio()+476<-ksfdwat1()+84<-k
sfdrwat

0()+520<-kcrfw_post()+500<-kcrfw_redo_write()+2964<-ksbabs()+764<-ksbrdp()

aiowait()+540<-skgfospo()+216<-skgfrwat()+80<-ksfdwtio()+476<-ksfdwat1()+84<-k
sfdrwat

0()+520<-kcrfw_post()+500<-kcrfw_redo_write()+2964<-ksbabs()+764<-ksbrdp()

aiowait()+540<-skgfospo()+216<-skgfrwat()+80<-ksfdwtio()+476<-ksfdwat1()+84<-k
sfdrwat

0()+520<-kcrfw_post()+500<-kcrfw_redo_write()+2964<-ksbabs()+764<-ksbrdp()

Truss output
~~~~~~~~~~~~~
= 1048576
67072
27640/38: kaio(AIONOTIFY, 0) = 0
27640/40: kaio(AIONOTIFY, 0) = 0
27640/43: kaio(AIONOTIFY, 0) = 0
27640/45: kaio(AIONOTIFY, 0) = 0
27640/1: kaio(AIOWAIT, 0xFFFFFFFF7FFFD480) = 1
27640/1: kaio(AIOWAIT, 0xFFFFFFFF7FFFD480) = 1
27640/1: kaio(AIOWAIT, 0xFFFFFFFF7FFFD480) = 1
27640/1: kaio(AIOWAIT, 0xFFFFFFFF7FFFD480) = 1
= 1048576
27640/42: kaio(AIONOTIFY, 0) = 0
27640/1: kaio(AIOWAIT, 0xFFFFFFFF7FFFD480) = 1

Note : The TRUSS output was taken with the filesystemio_options=setall.

1. Performed the test on solaris Box with the below settings :

filesystemio_options=none
disk_asynch_io=false
_lgwr_async_io=TRUE

2. Performed another test on Linux with the following settings and it looks
like the behaviour matches with Solaris and hence it looks like it may not be
port specific .

filesystemio_options=SETALL
disk_asynch_io=TRUE
_lgwr_async_io=TRUE/FALSE

Linux_lgwr_true.out ) .

Request you to review the uploaded files and update with the results of your
analysis .

As per Bug:8357698 LGWR USES ASYNC IO INSPITE OF SETTING _LGWR_ASYNC_IO=FALSE , the filesystemio_options & disk_asynch_io are overwriting _lgwr_async_io settings .

Solution
Most often high CPU consumption by lgwr is related to Async IO.

You can try setting filesystemio_options=none & disk_asynch_io=false with obvious performance impact , but this may not be acceptable to you .

As per Bug:8357698 LGWR USES ASYNC IO INSPITE OF SETTING _LGWR_ASYNC_IO=FALSE , the filesystemio_options & disk_asynch_io are overwriting _lgwr_async_io settings .

1] Move the Redologs to the filesystem where the async IO is not permitted . This will cause the lgwr process not to use async calls.

OR

2] Use direct I/O, which is best done by mounting the corresponding filesystems unbuffered ( (using the”sync” option in Linux ext3, or the “forcedirectio” option in Solaris ufs, for example).

For example :
=========
On solaris:
—————
# mount_ufs -o forcedirectio /dev/rdsk/c2t3d0s0 /d17

If forcedirectio is specified and supported by the file system, then for the duration of the mount forced direct I/O will be used. If the filesystem is mounted using forcedirectio, then data is transferred directly between user address space and the disk. If the filesystem is mounted using noforcedirectio, then data is buffered in kernel address space when data is transferred between user address space and the disk. forcedirectio is a performance option that benefits only from large sequential data transfers. The default behavior is noforcedirectio.

On linux :
————–
# mount -o sync /dev/rdsk/c2t3d0s0 /d17

The sync option has effect only for ext2, ext3, fat, vfat and ufs . The default is async .

PS: We recommend you to involve your system administrator in chainging the moutn options of the OS file system .

由于Bug:8357698的存在,导致filesystemio_options和disk_asynch_io 2个参数可以覆盖_lgwr_async_io的设置,这个问题一直到11.1.0.6以后才得到修复,而在11.2中_lgwr_async_io参数干脆被取消了:

SQL> select * from v$version;

BANNER
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.2.0 - 64bit Production
PL/SQL Release 11.2.0.2.0 - Production
CORE    11.2.0.2.0      Production
TNS for Linux: Version 11.2.0.2.0 - Production
NLSRTL Version 11.2.0.2.0 - Production

SQL> SELECT x.ksppinm NAME, y.ksppstvl VALUE, x.ksppdesc describ
  2   FROM SYS.x$ksppi x, SYS.x$ksppcv y
  3   WHERE x.inst_id = USERENV ('Instance')
  4   AND y.inst_id = USERENV ('Instance')
  5   AND x.indx = y.indx
  6  AND x.ksppinm='_lgwr_async_io';

no rows selected

SQL> show parameter filesystem

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
filesystemio_options                 string      setall
SQL> show parameter async

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
disk_asynch_io                       boolean     TRUE
tape_asynch_io                       boolean     TRUE

io_submit(139755827974144, 2, {{0x7f1b6e992450, 0, 1, 0, 256}, {0x7f1b6e9921f8, 0, 1, 0, 259}}) = 2
io_getevents(139755827974144, 2, 128, {{0x7f1b6e992450, 0x7f1b6e992450, 1024, 0}, {0x7f1b6e9921f8, 0x7f1b6e9921f8, 1024, 0}}, {600, 0}) = 2
times({tms_utime=3, tms_stime=4, tms_cutime=0, tms_cstime=0}) = 480863691
semtimedop(2654212, 0x7fffadc3db80, 1, {3, 0}) = 0
times({tms_utime=3, tms_stime=4, tms_cutime=0, tms_cstime=0}) = 480863808
times({tms_utime=3, tms_stime=4, tms_cutime=0, tms_cstime=0}) = 480863808
io_submit(139755827974144, 2, {{0x7f1b6e9921f8, 0, 1, 0, 256}, {0x7f1b6e992450, 0, 1, 0, 259}}) = 2
io_getevents(139755827974144, 2, 128, {{0x7f1b6e9921f8, 0x7f1b6e9921f8, 512, 0}, {0x7f1b6e992450, 0x7f1b6e992450, 512, 0}}, {600, 0}) = 2

/* 在11.2中若启用了AIO,那么lgwr仍会沿用async IO */

总结:
lgwr是否启用async IO取决于_lgwr_async_io隐藏参数,该参数默认为false,也就是说lgwr默认情况下应当使用sync同步IO。但是因为10.1.0.2到11.1.0.6间存在bug会导致_lgwr_async_io被disk_asynch_io和filesystemio_options参数覆盖而不起作用;在以上版本中若启用了AIO那么lgwr无疑会使用AIO,如果既想要启用AIO又不想因为lgwr使用async而造成隐患,那么可以将日志文件所在移动到不允许async IO的位置,或者使用direct/sync/forcedirectio选项来mount文件系统。在版本11.2以后_lgwr_async_io参数被废弃,lgwr是否启用async io完全取决于disk_asynch_io及filesystemio_options。

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Comments

  1. luzp says:

    不错,学习了。

  2. xkglob刀 says:

    我不得不说,你可能不是很明白这个bug8357698的上下文.它被关成了NOT A BUG.所以它根本就不是个BUG.

    • oracle有自己的 Bug Life Cycle , report bug未必是real bug,这个我当然懂, 但是不把他们称作 “BUG”, 你有其他代名词吗?

      BUG运作流程在内部称为Bug Diagnosis and Escalation – BDE。

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