了解你所不知道的SMON功能(十):维护SMON_SCN_TIME字典基表

SMON后台进程的作用还包括维护SMON_SCN_TIME基表。

SMON_SCN_TIME基表用于记录过去时间段中SCN(system change number)与具体的时间戳(timestamp)之间的映射关系,因为是采样记录这种映射关系,所以SMON_SCN_TIME可以较为较为粗糙地(不精确地)定位某个SCN的时间信息。实际的SMON_SCN_TIME是一张cluster table簇表。

 

 

 

SMON_SCN_TIME时间映射表最大的用途是为闪回类型的查询(flashback type queries)提供一种将时间映射为SCN的途径(The SMON time mapping is mainly for flashback type queries to map a time to an SCN)。

 

Metalink文档<Error ORA-01466 while executing a flashback query. [ID 281510.1]>介绍了SMON更新SMON_SCN_TIME的规律:

  • 在版本10g中SMON_SCN_TIME每6秒钟被更新一次(In Oracle Database 10g, smon_scn_time is updated every 6 seconds hence that is the minimum time that the flashback query time needs to be behind the timestamp of the first change to the table.)
  • 在版本9.2中SMON_SCN_TIME每5分钟被更新一次(In Oracle Database 9.2, smon_scn_time is updated every 5 minutes hence the required delay between the flashback time and table properties change is at least 5 minutes.)

 

另外从10g开始SMON也会清理SMON_SCN_TIME中的记录了,SMON后台进程会每5分钟被唤醒一次,检查SMON_SCN_TIME在磁盘上的映射记录总数,若总数超过144000条,则会使用以下语句删除最老的一条记录(time_mp最小):

 

delete from smon_scn_time
 where thread = 0
   and time_mp = (select min(time_mp) from smon_scn_time where thread = 0)

 

若仅仅删除一条记录不足以获得足够的空间,那么SMON会反复多次执行以上DELETE语句。

 

触发场景

 

虽然Metalink文档<Error ORA-01466 while executing a flashback query. [ID 281510.1]>指出了在10g中SMON会以每6秒一次的频率更新SMON_SCN_TIME基表,但是实际观测可以发现更新频率与SCN的增长速率相关,在较为繁忙的实例中SCN的上升极快时SMON可能会以6秒一次的最短间隔频率更新 , 但是在空闲的实例中SCN增长较慢,则仍会以每5或10分钟一次频率更新,例如:

 

[oracle@vrh8 ~]$ ps -ef|grep smon|grep -v grep
oracle    3484     1  0 Nov12 ?        00:00:02 ora_smon_G10R21

SQL> select * from v$version;

BANNER
----------------------------------------------------------------
Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.2.0.1.0 - 64bi
PL/SQL Release 10.2.0.1.0 - Production
CORE    10.2.0.1.0      Production
TNS for Linux: Version 10.2.0.1.0 - Production
NLSRTL Version 10.2.0.1.0 - Production

SQL> select * from global_name;

GLOBAL_NAME
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
www.oracledatabase12g.com & www.askmaclean.com

SQL> oradebug setospid 3484;
Oracle pid: 8, Unix process pid: 3484, image: oracle@vrh8.oracle.com (SMON)

SQL> oradebug event 10500 trace name context forever,level 10 : 10046 trace name context forever,level 12;
Statement processed.
SQL>
SQL> oradebug tracefile_name;
/s01/admin/G10R21/bdump/g10r21_smon_3484.trc

/* 等待一定时间 */

 

找出SMON trace文件中insert数据到SMON_SCN_TIME的记录:

 

 grep -A20 "insert into smon_scn_time" /s01/admin/G10R21/bdump/g10r21_smon_3484.trc

insert into smon_scn_time (thread, time_mp, time_dp, scn, scn_wrp, scn_bas,  num_mappings, tim_scn_map)
values (0, :1, :2, :3, :4, :5, :6, :7)
END OF STMT
PARSE #4:c=0,e=43,p=0,cr=0,cu=0,mis=0,r=0,dep=1,og=4,tim=1290280848899596
BINDS #4:
kkscoacd
 Bind#0
  oacdty=02 mxl=22(22) mxlc=00 mal=00 scl=00 pre=00
  oacflg=00 fl2=0001 frm=00 csi=00 siz=24 off=0
  kxsbbbfp=7fb29844edb8  bln=22  avl=06  flg=05
  value=767145793
 Bind#1
  oacdty=12 mxl=07(07) mxlc=00 mal=00 scl=00 pre=00
  oacflg=10 fl2=0001 frm=00 csi=00 siz=8 off=0
  kxsbbbfp=7fff023ae780  bln=07  avl=07  flg=09
  value="11/14/2011 0:3:13"
 Bind#2
  oacdty=02 mxl=22(04) mxlc=00 mal=00 scl=00 pre=00
  oacflg=10 fl2=0001 frm=00 csi=00 siz=24 off=0
  kxsbbbfp=7fff023ae70c  bln=22  avl=04  flg=09
  value=954389
 Bind#3
--
insert into smon_scn_time (thread, time_mp, time_dp, scn, scn_wrp, scn_bas,  num_mappings, tim_scn_map)
values (0, :1, :2, :3, :4, :5, :6, :7)
END OF STMT
PARSE #1:c=0,e=21,p=0,cr=0,cu=0,mis=0,r=0,dep=1,og=4,tim=1290281434933390
BINDS #1:
kkscoacd
 Bind#0
  oacdty=02 mxl=22(22) mxlc=00 mal=00 scl=00 pre=00
  oacflg=00 fl2=0001 frm=00 csi=00 siz=24 off=0
  kxsbbbfp=7fb29844edb8  bln=22  avl=06  flg=05
  value=767146393
 Bind#1
  oacdty=12 mxl=07(07) mxlc=00 mal=00 scl=00 pre=00
  oacflg=10 fl2=0001 frm=00 csi=00 siz=8 off=0
  kxsbbbfp=7fff023ae780  bln=07  avl=07  flg=09
  value="11/14/2011 0:13:13"
 Bind#2
  oacdty=02 mxl=22(04) mxlc=00 mal=00 scl=00 pre=00
  oacflg=10 fl2=0001 frm=00 csi=00 siz=24 off=0
  kxsbbbfp=7fff023ae70c  bln=22  avl=04  flg=09
  value=954720
 Bind#3
--
insert into smon_scn_time (thread, time_mp, time_dp, scn, scn_wrp, scn_bas,  num_mappings, tim_scn_map)
values (0, :1, :2, :3, :4, :5, :6, :7)
END OF STMT
PARSE #3:c=0,e=20,p=0,cr=0,cu=0,mis=0,r=0,dep=1,og=4,tim=1290281727955249
BINDS #3:
kkscoacd
 Bind#0
  oacdty=02 mxl=22(22) mxlc=00 mal=00 scl=00 pre=00
  oacflg=00 fl2=0001 frm=00 csi=00 siz=24 off=0
  kxsbbbfp=7fb29844e960  bln=22  avl=06  flg=05
  value=767146993
 Bind#1
  oacdty=12 mxl=07(07) mxlc=00 mal=00 scl=00 pre=00
  oacflg=10 fl2=0001 frm=00 csi=00 siz=8 off=0
  kxsbbbfp=7fff023ae780  bln=07  avl=07  flg=09
  value="11/14/2011 0:23:13"
 Bind#2
  oacdty=02 mxl=22(04) mxlc=00 mal=00 scl=00 pre=00
  oacflg=10 fl2=0001 frm=00 csi=00 siz=24 off=0
  kxsbbbfp=7fff023ae70c  bln=22  avl=04  flg=09
  value=954926
 Bind#3
insert into smon_scn_time (thread, time_mp, time_dp, scn, scn_wrp, scn_bas,  num_mappings, tim_scn_map)
values (0, :1, :2, :3, :4, :5, :6, :7)
END OF STMT
PARSE #4:c=0,e=30,p=0,cr=0,cu=0,mis=0,r=0,dep=1,og=4,tim=1290282313990553
BINDS #4:
kkscoacd
 Bind#0
  oacdty=02 mxl=22(22) mxlc=00 mal=00 scl=00 pre=00
  oacflg=00 fl2=0001 frm=00 csi=00 siz=24 off=0
  kxsbbbfp=7fb29844edb8  bln=22  avl=06  flg=05
  value=767147294
 Bind#1
  oacdty=12 mxl=07(07) mxlc=00 mal=00 scl=00 pre=00
  oacflg=10 fl2=0001 frm=00 csi=00 siz=8 off=0
  kxsbbbfp=7fff023ae780  bln=07  avl=07  flg=09
  value="11/14/2011 0:28:14"
 Bind#2
  oacdty=02 mxl=22(04) mxlc=00 mal=00 scl=00 pre=00
  oacflg=10 fl2=0001 frm=00 csi=00 siz=24 off=0
  kxsbbbfp=7fff023ae70c  bln=22  avl=04  flg=09
  value=955036
 Bind#3

 

 

可以通过以上INSERT语句的TIME_DP绑定变量值中发现其更新SMON_SCN_TIME的时间规律,一般为5或10分钟一次。这说明SMON_SCN_TIME的更细频率与数据库实例的负载有关,其最短的间隔是每6秒一次,最长的间隔为10分钟一次。

 

由于SMON_SCN_TIME的更新频率问题可能引起ORA-01466错误,详见:
Error ORA-01466 while executing a flashback query. [ID 281510.1]

 

由于SMON_SCN_TIME的数据不一致可能引起ORA-00600[6711]或频繁地执行”delete from smon_scn_time”删除语句,详见:
ORA-00600[6711]错误一例
High Executions Of Statement “delete from smon_scn_time…” [ID 375401.1]

 

SMON维护SMON_SCN_TIME时相关的Stack CALL,ktf_scn_time是更新SMON_SCN_TIME的主要函数:

 

ksedst ksedmp ssexhd kghlkremf kghalo kghgex kghalf kksLoadChild kxsGetRuntimeLock kksfbc
kkspsc0 kksParseCursor opiosq0 opiall0 opikpr opiodr rpidrus skgmstack rpidru rpiswu2 kprball
ktf_scn_time
ktmmon ktmSmonMain ksbrdp opirip opidrv sou2o opimai_real main main_opd_entry

 

SMON 还可能使用以下SQL语句维护SMON_SCN_TIME字典基表:

 

select smontabv.cnt,
       smontab.time_mp,
       smontab.scn,
       smontab.num_mappings,
       smontab.tim_scn_map,
       smontab.orig_thread
  from smon_scn_time smontab,
       (select max(scn) scnmax,
               count(*) + sum(NVL2(TIM_SCN_MAP, NUM_MAPPINGS, 0)) cnt
          from smon_scn_time
         where thread = 0) smontabv
 where smontab.scn = smontabv.scnmax
   and thread = 0

insert into smon_scn_time
  (thread,
   time_mp,
   time_dp,
   scn,
   scn_wrp,
   scn_bas,
   num_mappings,
   tim_scn_map)
values
  (0, :1, :2, :3, :4, :5, :6, :7)

update smon_scn_time
   set orig_thread  = 0,
       time_mp      = :1,
       time_dp      = :2,
       scn          = :3,
       scn_wrp      = :4,
       scn_bas      = :5,
       num_mappings = :6,
       tim_scn_map  = :7
 where thread = 0
   and scn = (select min(scn) from smon_scn_time where thread = 0)

delete from smon_scn_time
 where thread = 0
   and scn = (select min(scn) from smon_scn_time where thread = 0)

 

如何禁止SMON更新SMON_SCN_TIME基表

 

 

可以通过设置诊断事件event=’12500 trace name context forever, level 10’来禁止SMON更新SMON_SCN_TIME基表(Setting the 12500 event at system level should stop SMON from updating the SMON_SCN_TIME table.):

SQL>  alter system set events '12500 trace name context forever, level 10';

System altered.

 

一般我们不推荐禁止SMON更新SMON_SCN_TIME基表,因为这样会影响flashback Query闪回查询的正常使用,但是在某些异常恢复的场景中SMON_SCN_TIME数据讹误可能导致实例的Crash,那么可以利用以上12500事件做到不触发SMON_SCN_TIME被更新。

 

 

如何手动清除SMON_SCN_TIME的数据

 

因为SMON_SCN_TIME不是bootstrap自举核心对象,所以我们可以手动更新该表上的数据、及重建其索引。

如我在<ORA-00600[6711]错误一例>中介绍了因为SMON_SCN_TIME与其索引的数据不一致时,可以通过重建索引来解决问题:

connect / as sysdba
drop index smon_scn_time_scn_idx;
drop index smon_scn_time_tim_idx;
create unique index smon_scn_time_scn_idx on smon_scn_time(scn);
create unique index smon_scn_time_tim_idx on smon_scn_time(time_mp);
analyze table smon_scn_time validate structure cascade;

 

可以在设置了12500事件后手动删除SMON_SCN_TIME上的记录,重启实例后SMON会继续正常更新SMON_SCN_TIME。除非是因为SMON_SCN_TIME表上的记录与索引smon_scn_time_tim_idx或smon_scn_time_scn_idx上的不一致造成DELETE语句无法有效删除该表上的记录:文档<LOCK ON SYS.SMON_SCN_TIME [ID 747745.1]>说明了该问题,否则我们没有必要手动去清除SMON_SCN_TIME上的数据。

具体方法如下:

 

SQL> conn / as sysdba

/* Set the event at system level */

SQL> alter system set events '12500 trace name context forever, level 10';

/* Delete the records from SMON_SCN_TIME */

SQL> delete from smon_scn_time;

SQL> commit;

SQL> alter system set events '12500 trace name context off';

完成以上步骤后重启实例restart instance

shutdown immediate;
startup;
  1. create the scntime tracking table that smon will maintain
    as a circular queue – notice that we populate the entire
    table with at least 144000 entries (enough for 5 days).
    -“thread” is for backward compatibility and is always 0
    -“orig_thread” is for upgrade/downgrade
    – scn_wrp, scn_bas, and time_dp are for backward compatibility
    and not queried by the ktf layer.

    补充:11g中smon_scn_time的创建语句被移到了?/rdbms/admin/dtxnspc.bsq 文件中

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