Understand Oracle Validated Configurations

Oracle Validated Configurations致力于为企业提供更简易、更快捷、成本更低的基于Linux和Oracle VM的解决方案。该计划向我们提供经过测试和验证的体系架构,其附带的文档揭示了相关硬件、软件、存储、网络原件的最佳配置实践,以帮助系统提升性能和可收缩性并降低成本。从行业角度来说Oracle Validated Configurations所验证的配置及提供的最佳实践文档受到Oracle合作伙伴的接受和认可,Oracle Validated Configurations提供了推荐使用的软硬件组合的部署方案细节,这些方案已被证明是十分有益的。

Oracle Validated Configurations提供了那些好处?

Oracle Validated Configurations是对系统底层组件在高负载下良好工作的有力保证,同时这些推荐配置也在实践中被证明是易于快速部署的。其有助于:

  1. 实现标准化的、具有可扩展性、高可用的且成本低廉的解决方案
  2. 加速并简化在Linux上部署Oracle软件
  3. 为最终用户降低了测试系统所要花费的昂贵成本
  4. 转嫁了用户的风险

那么Oracle Validated Configurations和最早推出的Oracle Product Certification有什么区别?

传统的Oracle Product Certification在认证某个操作系统平台后,可以确认Oracle的相关产品完全支持该系统平台。而Oracle Validated Configurations则通过测试验证更进一步提供了完整的组件组合信息,这些信息包括针对软硬件、存储的版本、设置、补丁的推荐值,而这些推荐值来源于Oracle及其合作伙伴的Linux测试实验室中高压测试的经验。

我们要如何使用Oracle Validated Configurations?

我们可以通过访问或订阅 <Browse Published Validated Configurations>来了解OVC中已经验证的软硬件组合配置。

此外在Oracle Enterprise Linux中提供了oracle-validated RPM软件包,通过使用OEL DVD介质上的该包我们可以更简单地部署安装Oracle产品所需要的软件包环境,特别是对于Oracle Database的安装来说有了以上特性后显得特别简单。

通过安装DVD介质使用oracle-validate软件包的步骤如下:
1.创建介质装载目录/media/disk: mkdir /media/disk
2.插入OEL DVD光盘
3.装载目录: mount /dev/cdrom /media/disk
4.touch /etc/yum.repos.d/public-yum-el5.repo,并加入以下内容

[oel5]
name = Enterprise Linux 5.5 DVD
baseurl=file:///media/disk/Server/
gpgcheck=0
enabled=1

注意以上name中的OEL版本(指5.5)可能和你手头DVD的版本不一样,这一般不会造成问题,但要保证当前操作系统与安装介质中的完全一致。

5.正式安装oracle-validated软件包环境,使用yum install oracle-validated 命令:

yum install oracle-validated
Loaded plugins: security
Setting up Install Process
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package oracle-validated.x86_64 0:1.0.0-22.el5 set to be updated
--> Processing Dependency: /usr/lib/libaio.so for package: oracle-validated
--> Running transaction check
---> Package libaio-devel.i386 0:0.3.106-5 set to be updated
--> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved

==========================================================================================
 Package                    Arch             Version                  Repository     Size
==========================================================================================
Installing:
 oracle-validated           x86_64           1.0.0-22.el5             ol5            16 k
Installing for dependencies:
 libaio-devel               i386             0.3.106-5                ol5            12 k

Transaction Summary
==========================================================================================
Install       2 Package(s)
Upgrade       0 Package(s)

Total download size: 27 k
Is this ok [y/N]: y
Downloading Packages:
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total                                                      12 MB/s |  27 kB     00:00
Running rpm_check_debug
Running Transaction Test
Finished Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
  Installing     : libaio-devel                                                       1/2
  Installing     : oracle-validated                                                   2/2 

Installed:
  oracle-validated.x86_64 0:1.0.0-22.el5                                                  

Dependency Installed:
  libaio-devel.i386 0:0.3.106-5                                                           

Complete!

完成对oracle-validated的安装后操作系统软件包环境也就水道渠成了,此外该oracle-validated包还会帮助我们设置必要的Linux内核参数,具体来说它会修改/etc/sysctl.conf配置文件中的参数到Oracle推荐的值,以下为完成oracle-validated安装后的sysctl.conf,供参考:

# Kernel sysctl configuration file for Oracle Enterprise Linux
#
# For binary values, 0 is disabled, 1 is enabled.  See sysctl(8) and
# sysctl.conf(5) for more details.

# Controls IP packet forwarding
net.ipv4.ip_forward = 0

# Controls source route verification
net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter = 1

# Do not accept source routing
net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route = 0

# Controls the System Request debugging functionality of the kernel

# Controls whether core dumps will append the PID to the core filename
# Useful for debugging multi-threaded applications
kernel.core_uses_pid = 1

# Controls the use of TCP syncookies
net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1

# Controls the maximum size of a message, in bytes

# Controls the default maxmimum size of a mesage queue

# Controls the maximum shared segment size, in bytes

# Controls the maximum number of shared memory segments, in pages

# For 11g, Oracle-Validated setting for fs.file-max is 6815744
# For 10g, uncomment 'fs.file-max = 327679', and comment 'fs.file-max = 6553600' entry and re-run sysctl -p
# fs.file-max = 327679
fs.file-max = 6815744

# Oracle-Validated setting for kernel.msgmni is 2878
kernel.msgmni = 2878

# Oracle-Validated setting for kernel.msgmax is 8192
kernel.msgmax = 8192

# Oracle-Validated setting for kernel.msgmnb is 65536
kernel.msgmnb = 65536

# Oracle-Validated setting for kernel.sem is '250 32000 100 142'
kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 142

# Oracle-Validated setting for kernel.shmmni is 4096
kernel.shmmni = 4096

# Oracle-Validated setting for kernel.shmall is 1073741824
kernel.shmall = 1073741824

# Oracle-Validated setting for kernel.shmmax is 4398046511104 on x86_64 and 4294967295 on i386 architecture. Refer Note id 567506.1
kernel.shmmax = 4398046511104

# Oracle-Validated setting for kernel.sysrq is 1
kernel.sysrq = 1

# Oracle-Validated setting for net.core.rmem_default is 262144
net.core.rmem_default = 262144

# For 11g, Oracle-Validated setting for net.core.rmem_max is 4194304
# For 10g, uncomment 'net.core.rmem_max = 2097152', comment 'net.core.rmem_max = 4194304' entry and re-run sysctl -p
# net.core.rmem_max = 2097152
net.core.rmem_max = 4194304

# Oracle-Validated setting for net.core.wmem_default is 262144
net.core.wmem_default = 262144

# For 11g, Oracle-Validated setting for net.core.wmem_max is 1048576
# For 10g, uncomment 'net.core.wmem_max = 262144', comment 'net.core.wmem_max = 1048576' entry for this parameter and re-run sysctl -p
# net.core.wmem_max = 262144
net.core.wmem_max = 1048576

# Oracle-Validated setting for fs.aio-max-nr is 3145728
fs.aio-max-nr = 3145728

# For 11g, Oracle-Validated setting for net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range is 9000 65500
# For 10g, uncomment 'net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1024 65000', comment 'net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 9000 65500' entry and re-run sysctl -p
# net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1024 65000
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 9000 65500

# Oracle-Validated setting for vm.min_free_kbytes is 51200 to avoid OOM killer
vm.min_free_kbytes = 51200

oracle-validated包还会帮助我们修改/etc/security/limits.conf配置以获得合理的shell limit:

[oracle@rh2 ~]$ ulimit  -a
core file size          (blocks, -c) 0
data seg size           (kbytes, -d) unlimited
scheduling priority             (-e) 0
file size               (blocks, -f) unlimited
pending signals                 (-i) 31668
max locked memory       (kbytes, -l) 50000000
max memory size         (kbytes, -m) unlimited
open files                      (-n) 131072
pipe size            (512 bytes, -p) 8
POSIX message queues     (bytes, -q) 819200
real-time priority              (-r) 0
stack size              (kbytes, -s) 8192
cpu time               (seconds, -t) unlimited
max user processes              (-u) 131072
virtual memory          (kbytes, -v) unlimited
file locks                      (-x) unlimited

[oracle@rh2 ~]$ cat /etc/security/limits.conf

# Oracle-Validated setting for nofile soft limit is 131072
oracle   soft   nofile    131072

# Oracle-Validated setting for nofile hard limit is 131072
oracle   hard   nofile    131072

# Oracle-Validated setting for nproc soft limit is 131072
oracle   soft   nproc    131072

# Oracle-Validated setting for nproc hard limit is 131072
oracle   hard   nproc    131072

# Oracle-Validated setting for core soft limit is unlimited
oracle   soft   core    unlimited

# Oracle-Validated setting for core hard limit is unlimited
oracle   hard   core    unlimited

# Oracle-Validated setting for memlock soft limit is 50000000
oracle   soft   memlock    50000000

# Oracle-Validated setting for memlock hard limit is 50000000
oracle   hard   memlock    50000000

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Comments

  1. The Oracle Validated RPM Package for Installation Prerequisites

    Applies to:
    Linux OS – Version: Oracle Linux 4.4 to Oracle Linux 5.6 – Release: OL4U4 to OL5U6
    Linux x86
    Linux x86-64
    Purpose
    This document describes the Oracle Validated RPM package for Oracle Linux environments where it is used to have the required packages installed and system configuration is done.
    Scope and Application
    This document is useful for Linux system administrators preparing a RedHat / Oracle Linux ) 4 and 5 system for installation of Oracle Database.
    The Oracle Validated RPM Package for Installation Prerequisites
    The Oracle RDBMS requires for specific RPM packages to be installed on Oracle Linux (See the references section below and Oracle Database Documentation) . To get the required RPMs installed and system configured, one can use the Oracle Validated RPM. The Oracle Validated RPM has three main functions:

    During installation, via its dependencies it will require the RPM packages required by the Oracle RDBMS (database install prerequisites)
    During installation, it will configure the OS (Oracle Linux) w.r.t. kernel parameters, user limits, etc.
    Provides /usr/bin/oracle-validated-verify to be ran afterwards if needed.

    The Oracle Validated RPM is available from:

    The Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN) (See Document 397038.1)
    From the OSS website:
    http://oss.oracle.com/el4/oracle-validated/
    http://oss.oracle.com/el5/oracle-validated/

    Use the following procedure to subscribe to Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN) channels, and to add the Oracle Software for Enterprise Linux channel that distributes the Oracle Validated Configurations Setup RPM:

    1. Complete a default Oracle Linux workstation installation, or a default Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation.

    2. Register your server with Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN). By default, you are registered for the Oracle Linux Latest channel for your operating system and hardware.

    3. Log in to ULN at the following URL:

    https://linux.oracle.com

    4. Click the Systems tab, and in the System Profiles list, select a registered server. The System Details window opens, and displays the subscriptions for the server.

    5. From the Available Channels list, select the “Enterprise Linux Update Patches ()” channel that is appropriate for your installation of Linux (for example: “Enterprise Linux 4 Update 7 Patches (i386)”). The channel name convention applies to different releases and architectures e.g.:

    el4_u7_i386_patch: Enterprise Linux 4 Update 7 Patches (i386)
    el4_u8_ia64_patch: Enterprise Linux 4 Update 8 Patch (ia64)
    el5_u2_x86_64_patch: Enterprise Linux 5 Update 2 Patch (x86_64)
    el5_u4_i386_patch: Enterprise Linux 5 Update 4 Patch (i386)

    6. Click Subscribe.

    7. From a terminal session, as root, enter the following command:

    # up2date –nox –show-channels

    You should see output indicating that you have subscribed to the Oracle Software for Enterprise Linux channel. For example:

    el4_i386_latest
    el4_u7_i386_patch

    8. Open a terminal session as root, and install the Oracle Validated Configurations Setup RPM with up2date, using the following command:

    # up2date –install oracle-validated

    9. If you are running a cluster, repeat steps 1 through 8 on all other servers in your cluster.

    Note: Check the Oracle Validated Configuration RPM log file to review system configuration changes, for release older than 1.0.0.18

    /etc/sysconfig/oracle-validated/results/orakernel.log

    for releases 1.0.0.18 and up

    /var/log/oracle-validated/results/orakernel.log

  2. Oracle-Validated Does Not Install Required Kernel-Headers RPM package

    Applies to:
    Linux OS – Version: 2.6.18-8.1.10.el5 and later [Release: RHEL5GA and later ]
    Information in this document applies to any platform.
    Symptoms
    The “oracle-validated” package is designed to install requisite packages for an Oracle RDBMS install.
    However, after installing it using “up2date” not all requisite packages are installed.
    Cause
    The required packages for an RDBMS install require that the “kernel-headers” be installed. The up2date utility will detect this and attempt to install it. However, the default setting in the up2date configuration file is to skip any packages whose name begins with “kernel”. Thus not all required packages will be installed.
    Solution
    Run “update –configure” and select option “pkgSkipList” (typically this is option 19). Follow the instructions to clear the list and save the changes.

    A subsequent run of “up2date -i oracle-validated” should then complete correctly.

  3. 技术贴,永远支持。果断收藏。

  4. 無限追云 says:

    好贴,强烈支持

  5. 如果是centos6.4呢,也用这个?

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