Oracle网络TNS协议介绍(revised)

在开发源工具解决Oracle中的问题时,必须了解TNS协议。在努力理解TNS协议的时候,Oracle JDBC驱动程序(classes12.zip)会是一个很有用的资源

TNS头

每个TNS包都有一个8字节的包头。包最前面的两个字节用来表示包的长度–不包括包头的大小。和所有的值一样,大小是大端字节的方式存储的。如果进行了校验,那么校验和会被存放在下一个字(WORD)内–默认情况下会对校验和进行校验,该字(WORD)的值为0x0000。下面的一个字节用来表示包的类型–例如,最常见的类型如下所示:

Connect packet Type        1
Accept packet    Type       2
Ack  packet          Type      3
Refuse Packet     Type      4
Redirect Packet    Type   5
Data   Packet         Type    6
NULL Packet          Type    7
Abort  Packet          Type   9
Resend    Packet       Type 11
Marker   Packet         Type 12
Attention Packet       Type 13
Control   Packet        Type 14

要连接Oracle的时候,在TNS级,客户机向服务器发送一个链接包(类型1),这个包会指定客户将要访问的服务器名称。假定Listener知道这样的服务,那么接下来有两种可能:Listener可能会发送一个接收包(类型2)或者它可能用一个重定向包(类型5)将客户机指定向到另一个端口。如果出现的是前一种情况,那么客户机将尝试进行身份验证。如果出现的是后一种情况,那么客户机会向自己被重定向的端口发送一个连接包并请求访问该服务。如果一切顺利的话,服务器会发出一个接收包并开始进行身份验证。所有的身份验证包都是类型为6的数据包。

如果Listener不知道客户机要求访问那个服务,那么它就会发送一个拒绝包–类型4。一旦通过身份验证,查询包和结果包都是数据包。偶尔您会看到类型为12(oxoC的包)–这是用来中断的标记包。例如,如果服务器希望客户机停止发送数据,那么它会向客户机发送一个标记包。

接下来继续介绍TNS包头的细节,下面的一个字节是包头标志位(header flag)。一般这些包头标志位是不使用的,不过在10g中客户机可能会将它的值设定为0x04。

最后的两个字节构成一个字(WORD),他用来存放头校验和–在默认情况下不使用这个字并将其设为0x000:

WORD   00 00  Pocket Size
WORD   00 00  Packet Checksum
Byte     00  Packet Type
Byte     00   Flags
Word     00 00 Header Checksum

在对包进行深入研究前,观察一下拒绝包(类型4)应该会有所帮助。拒绝包表示某种错误–例如,一个因“用户名/密码无效”而被拒绝登陆的错误–即ORA-01017。根绝这些错误,第54个字节指出了问题所在:A3代表无效的密码,a2表明没有这样的用户。很明显,即使从拒绝包中也可以得到可能有用的信息。

发现这篇文章被网友转载了:地址;而且因为163 blog的权重比这里高导致原帖变成了”转帖”,真是很令人头痛的事情,
转载请注明出处:www.askmaclean.com  谢谢!

图文详解安装NetBackup 6.5备份恢复Oracle 10g rac 数据库(修订)

我们使用Linux平台进行测试,OS版本为Oracle Enterprise Linux 5.5 x86_64:
[root@nas servsoft]# cat /etc/issue
Enterprise Linux Enterprise Linux Server release 5.5 (Carthage)
Kernel \r on an \m

Netbackup 6.0仅支持2.4内核的Linux版本,2.6内核的Linux版本(主流的包括RHEL4,5 Centos等)需要使用NBU,只能安装Netbackup 6.5或以上版本。
现在我们有三台主机: rh1(rac的2号节点),rh2(rac的1号节点),nas(NBU Server)。
首先需要安装的是Netbackup Server端软件,当然你需要用到安装介质,你可以尝试在Veritas的官方网站下载到最新的版本;获取到安装介质后,我们首先要解压它:

[root@nas netbackup]# cp NetBackup_6.5_LinuxRedhat2.6.tar.gz /tmp
[root@nas tmp]# gunzip NetBackup_6.5_LinuxRedhat2.6.tar.gz
[root@nas tmp]# tar -xvf NetBackup_6.5_LinuxRedhat2.6.tar
在进入安装前确认xinetd服务正确运行着:
[root@nas tmp]# service xinetd status
xinetd (pid  2886) is running...
[root@nas NB_65_LinuxR_x86_20070723]# ./install
Do you want to install NetBackup and Media Manager files? [y,n] (y) y
NetBackup and Media Manager are normally installed in /usr/openv.
Is it OK to install in /usr/openv? [y,n] (y) y
Reading NetBackup files from /tmp/NB_65_LinuxR_x86_20070723/linuxR_x86/anb
...................
Enter the full path name to the directory where the
appropriate installics script is located followed by
a  to continue. This script will then install
the package(s).
OR
Enter q to stop this install and abort.
此时我们需要输入Netbackup ISC(Infrastructure Core Services)软件所在的目录,当然你也可以从Veritas官方网站下载到该软件包,尝试解压:
[root@nas tmp]# cp NetBackup_6.5_ICS_LinuxX86.tar.gz /tmp
[root@nas tmp]# cd /tmp
[root@nas tmp]# gunzip NetBackup_6.5_ICS_LinuxX86.tar.gz
[root@nas tmp]# tar -xvf NetBackup_6.5_ICS_LinuxX86.tar
则此时ISC安装介质位于/tmp/NB_65_ICS_1.4.37.0_LinuxX86下,在原终端窗口中输入该目录
Enter q to stop this install and abort.
/tmp/NB_65_ICS_1.4.37.0_LinuxX86
Installing VRTSpbx...
A NetBackup Server or Enterprise Server license key is needed
for installation to continue.
Enter license key:
继续安装,此时需要输入您所购买的License注册码;如果您没有购买该软件但仍想使用的话,
可以尝试下面一串字符:DEX6-23FJ-T92R-O4O4-O4O4-K777-7777-EPXP-3XO。
Enter license key: DEX6-23FJ-T92R-O4O4-O4O4-K777-7777-EPXP-3XO
DEX6-23FJ-T92R-O4O4-O4O4-K777-7777-EPXP-3XO:
NetBackup Enterprise Server Base product with all the features enabled
has been registered.
All additional keys should be added at this time.
Do you want to add additional license keys now? [y,n] (y) n
Use /usr/openv/netbackup/bin/admincmd/get_license_key
to add, delete or list license keys at a later time.
Installing NetBackup Enterprise Server version: 6.5
If this machine will be using a different network interface than the
default (nas), the name of the preferred interface should be used
as the configured server name.  If this machine will be part of a
cluster, the virtual name should be used as the configured server name.
Would you like to use "nas" as the configured
name of the NetBackup server? [y,n] (y) y
Is nas the master server? [y,n] (y) y
Do you have any media servers? [y,n] (n) n
Checking /etc/services for the needed NetBackup and Media Manager services.
Copying original /etc/services file to /etc/services.NBU_062910.14:27:41
Editing /etc/services to update NetBackup and Media Manager services.
/etc/services will be updated to add the following entries for
NetBackup/Media Manager.
bpjobd  13723/tcp       bpjobd
vmd     13701/tcp       vmd
acsd    13702/tcp       acsd
tl8cd   13705/tcp       tl8cd
tldcd   13711/tcp       tldcd
odld    13706/tcp       odld
tl4d    13713/tcp       tl4d
tshd    13715/tcp       tshd
tlmd    13716/tcp       tlmd
tlhcd   13717/tcp       tlhcd
rsmd    13719/tcp       rsmd
...................

好了Netbackup Server端软件已经在NAS主机上安装完成,接下来我们需要进一步配置备份策略。

将/usr/openv/netbackup/bin路径加入到你的用户环境变量PATH中,以方便调用相关执行文件;

并在具有X11 forwarding功能的软件中(譬如Xmanager)中输入jnbSA命令,

您可能遭遇java.lang.UnsatisfiedLinkError: /usr/openv/java/jre/lib/i386/libawt.so: libXp.so的错误,

一般是由于没有安装libXp(i386和x86_64版本的都装一下)包所导致的。

正确安装的话输入jnbSA命令可以看到以下界面:

接着我们需要定义存储单元(Storage Unit),如果你同我一样没有真实的磁带机的话那么我们可以定义普通Disk

类型的存储单元, 选择Netbackup Management->Storage -> Storage Unit,在右边分隔栏右键点击New Storage Unit,

为你的存储单元起一个名字,并输入相关存储目录:

接下来点击NetBackup Management->Policies 选项定义Oracle备份使用到的备份策略,启用Backup Policy Configuration Wizard,并选择Oracle为备份策略类型:

在客户端列表(client list)中加入需要备份2台RAC所在主机,分别为rh1,rh2;硬件与操作系统选择Linux,Redhat2.6

好了,server端的配置完成了,接下来我们安装client端软件,安装前确认你已经获得了相关安装介质,以NBU6.5举例来说你需要有:NetBackup_6.5_CLIENTS2.tar.gz和NetBackup_6.5_UnixOptions.tar.gz 分别为Client端和Oracle Agent软件。

[root@rh2 tmp]# gunzip  NetBackup_6.5_UnixOptions.tar.gz
[root@rh2 tmp]# gunzip  NetBackup_6.5_CLIENTS2.tar.gz
[root@rh2 tmp]# tar -xvf NetBackup_6.5_UnixOptions.tar
[root@rh2 tmp]# tar -xvf NetBackup_6.5_CLIENTS2.tar
[root@rh2 tmp]# cd NB_65_CLIENTS2_20070723/
[root@rh2 NB_65_CLIENTS2_20070723]# ./install
Symantec Installation Script
Copyright 1993 - 2007 Symantec Corporation, All Rights Reserved.
Installing NetBackup Client Software
NOTE:  To install NetBackup Server software, insert the appropriate
NetBackup Server cdrom.
Do you wish to continue? [y,n] (y) y
Do you want to install the NetBackup client software for this client? [y,n] (y) y
This package will install Linux/RedHat2.6 client.
This package will install NetBackup client 6.5.
Enter the name of the NetBackup server : nas
Would you like to use "rh2" as the configured
name of the NetBackup client? [y,n] (y) y
........................
File /usr/openv/tmp/install_trace.10994 contains a trace of this install.
That file can be deleted after you are sure the install was successful.
[root@rh2 tmp]# cd NB_65_UOptions_20070723/
root@rh2 NB_65_UOptions_20070723]# ./install
Symantec Installation Script
Copyright 1993 - 2007 Symantec Corporation, All Rights Reserved.
Installation Options
1 NetBackup Add-On Product Software
2 NetBackup Database Agent Software
q To quit from this script
Choose an option [default: q]: 2
**********
There are two ways to install database agent software.
1.  Remote Installation:  Loads the software on a server with
the intent of pushing database software out to affected clients.
2.  Local Installation:   Loads and installs the software only to this
local machine.
**********
Do you want to do a local installation? [y,n] (n) y
**********
NetBackup Database Agent Installation
Choose the Database Agents you wish to install
one at a time or select Install All Database Agents.
1)  NetBackup for DB2
2)  NetBackup for Informix
3)  NetBackup for Lotus Notes
4)  NetBackup for Oracle
5)  NetBackup for SAP
6)  NetBackup for Sybase
7)  Install All Database Agents
q)  Done Selecting Agents
x)  Exit from this Script
Choose an option: 4
Choose an option: q
You have chosen to install these Database Agents:
NetBackup for Oracle
Is this list correct? [y,n] (y) y
**********
Of the agents selected, the following are supported
on this platform and will be installed:
Oracle
Loading the Database Agent packages into the
/usr/openv/netbackup/dbext directory and installing.
**********
Installing NetBackup for Oracle
Installing NetBackup for Oracle...
..........................
NetBackup for Oracle installation completed.
完成NBU客户端和Netbackup for Oracle Agent安装后,我们还需要对MML介质库文件进行链接,使用dba或oinstall组账户执行/usr/openv/netbackup/bin/oracle_link文件:
[root@rh2 NB_65_UOptions_20070723]# su - maclean
[maclean@rh2 ~]$ cd /usr/openv/netbackup/bin/
[maclean@rh2 bin]$ ./oracle_link
Tue Jun 29 19:22:28 EDT 2010
All Oracle instances should be shutdown before running this script.
Please log into the Unix system as the Oracle owner for running this script
Do you want to continue? (y/n) [n]
[maclean@rh2 bin]$ echo $ORACLE_HOME
/s01/rac10g
[maclean@rh2 bin]$ ./oracle_link
Tue Jun 29 19:22:35 EDT 2010
All Oracle instances should be shutdown before running this script.
Please log into the Unix system as the Oracle owner for running this script
Do you want to continue? (y/n) [n] y
LIBOBK path: /usr/openv/netbackup/bin
ORACLE_HOME: /s01/rac10g
Oracle version: 10.2.0.5.0
Platform type: x86_64
Linking LIBOBK:
ln -s /usr/openv/netbackup/bin/libobk.so64 /s01/rac10g/lib/libobk.so
Done

接下来在rh2主机上进行备份测试:

[maclean@rh2 bin]$ rman target /
Recovery Manager: Release 10.2.0.5.0 - Production on Tue Jun 29 19:26:00 2010
Copyright (c) 1982, 2007, Oracle.  All rights reserved.
connected to target database: RACDB (DBID=720516428)
RMAN> run
2> { allocate channel c1 type sbt parms="ENV=(NB_ORA_SERV=nas,NB_ORA_POLICY=racdb,NB_ORA_CLIENT=rh2)";
3> backup current controlfile;
4> release channel c1;
5> }
RMAN> run
2> { allocate channel c1 type sbt parms="ENV=(NB_ORA_SERV=nas,NB_ORA_POLICY=racdb,NB_ORA_CLIENT=rh2)";
3> backup current controlfile;
4> release channel c1;
5> }
using target database control file instead of recovery catalog
allocated channel: c1
channel c1: sid=136 instance=racdb1 devtype=SBT_TAPE
channel c1: Veritas NetBackup for Oracle - Release 6.5 (2007072323)
Starting backup at 29-JUN-10
channel c1: starting full datafile backupset
channel c1: specifying datafile(s) in backupset
including current control file in backupset
channel c1: starting piece 1 at 29-JUN-10
channel c1: finished piece 1 at 29-JUN-10
piece handle=03lhfi11_1_1 tag=TAG20100629T192729 comment=API Version 2.0,MMS Version 5.0.0.0
channel c1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:37
Finished backup at 29-JUN-10
released channel: c1
如上所示成功备份了当前控制文件。
RMAN> run
2> {
3> allocate channel c1 type sbt parms="ENV=(NB_ORA_SERV=nas,NB_ORA_POLICY=racdb)";
4> backup archivelog all delete input;
5> release channel c1;
6> }
using target database control file instead of recovery catalog
allocated channel: c1
channel c1: sid=136 instance=racdb1 devtype=SBT_TAPE
channel c1: Veritas NetBackup for Oracle - Release 6.5 (2007072323)
Starting backup at 29-JUN-10
channel c1: starting archive log backupset
channel c1: specifying archive log(s) in backup set
input archive log thread=1 sequence=1 recid=2 stamp=722901460
input archive log thread=1 sequence=2 recid=4 stamp=722901476
input archive log thread=1 sequence=3 recid=5 stamp=722901499
input archive log thread=1 sequence=4 recid=6 stamp=722904852
input archive log thread=2 sequence=1 recid=1 stamp=722901426
input archive log thread=2 sequence=2 recid=3 stamp=722901470
input archive log thread=2 sequence=3 recid=7 stamp=722904852
channel c1: starting piece 1 at 29-JUN-10
channel c1: finished piece 1 at 29-JUN-10
piece handle=06lhfjqr_1_1 tag=TAG20100629T195819 comment=API Version 2.0,MMS Version 5.0.0.0
channel c1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:46
channel c1: deleting archive log(s)
archive log filename=/arch/1_1_722899663.dbf recid=2 stamp=722901460
archive log filename=/arch/1_2_722899663.dbf recid=4 stamp=722901476
archive log filename=/arch/1_3_722899663.dbf recid=5 stamp=722901499
archive log filename=/arch/1_4_722899663.dbf recid=6 stamp=722904852
archive log filename=/arch/2_1_722899663.dbf recid=1 stamp=722901426
archive log filename=/arch/2_2_722899663.dbf recid=3 stamp=722901470
archive log filename=/arch/2_3_722899663.dbf recid=7 stamp=722904852
Finished backup at 29-JUN-10
Starting Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 29-JUN-10
piece handle=c-720516428-20100629-01 comment=API Version 2.0,MMS Version 5.0.0.0
Finished Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 29-JUN-10
released channel: c1

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