Know more about commit

COMMIT操作是RDBMS中事务结束的标志,在Oracle中与commit紧密相关的是SCN(System Change Number)。


  1. 为读一致性所用
  2. 为redolog中的记录排序,以及恢复

SCN由SCN Base和Scn Wrap组成,是一种6个字节的结构(structure)。其中SCN Base占用4个字节,而SCN wrap占用2个字节。但在实际存储时SCN-like的stucture常会占用8个字节。

 ub4 kscnbas
 ub2 kscnwrp

struct kcvfhcrs, 8 bytes                 @100                              Creation Checkpointed at scn
      ub4 kscnbas                        @100      0x000a8849
      ub2 kscnwrp                        @104      0x0000


  1. 绑定一个可用的rollback segment
  2. 在事务表(transaction table)上分配一个必要的槽位
  3. 从rollback segment中分配undo block

注意system rollback segment是一种特殊的回滚段,在10g以后普通回滚段的类型都变成了”TYPE2 UNDO”,而唯有system rollback segment的类型仍为”ROLLBACK”,这是由其特殊性造就的:

SQL> col segment_name for a20
SQL> col rollback for a20
SQL> select segment_name,segment_type from dba_segments where segment_type='ROLLBACK';

-------------------- ------------------
SYSTEM               ROLLBACK

System rollback segment面向的是SYSTEM表空间上数据字典对象相关事务的数据,以及由对用户数据产生的递归SQL调用所产生的数据。

Oracle不使用基于内存锁管理器的行锁,Oracle中的row lock是基于数据块的。数据块中的Interested Transaction List(ITL)是行锁的重要标志。

  1. 找出未被使用的ITL
  2. 找出最老的已经事务提交的ITL
  3. 做部分的块清理,直到有可用的ITL
  4. 扩展ITL区域,一条ITL占用24字节


  1. 得到一个SCN值
  2. 使用得到的SCN更新事务表中的槽位
  3. 在redo log buffer中创建一条commit记录
  4. 将redo log buffer刷新到磁盘上的在线日志文件
  5. 释放表和行上的锁(may cause delayed block cleanout)

Know more about DML

The change vectors as constructed by the transaction layer are used by the cache layer to apply the physical block changes.

Redo log ordering and recovery as well as read consistency are the fundamental purposes of SCNs.

The change vector:
Change vectors are built in the PGA process of the process modifying a block, have the DBA and SCN/SEQ of the block before the change, and only ever perform the change for one block.

The system commit number:
The SCN is a 6-byte structure consisting of the SCN base and SCN wrap.
Is a 6-byte structure consisting of the SCN base and SCN wrap, 4 bytes for the SCN base and 2 bytes for the SCN wrap

The SCN is used within the data block to reflect the committed version of the block.
There is only one global SCN generator for each database.
A large transaction is defined as a transaction that is participating in a parallel DML (PDML) operation or a distributed transaction.
One of the first checks for rollback segment allocation is whether the transaction is participating in a PDML or distributed transaction. These are used to determine the largest rollback segment to be allocated.

steps below to illustrate the order necessary to begin a transaction.

1.bind to the available rollback segment
2.allocate a slot in the transaction table
3.allocate an undo block to the rollback segment

When a free slot cannot be allocated in the transaction table, exclusive access is acquired in the rollback segment header.
Only when a free slot can be allocated in the transaction table do you gain exclusive access to the RBS header.

The system rollback segment will be used only for data for the system tablespace and data that is being created from recursive SQL calls generated by user data.

The search for the allocation of an undo block to a rollback segment will occur in:
Searching for an undo block to be allocated will begin in the current extent if the extent boundary has not been reached, in the next extent provided there are no uncommitted transactions, or in a newly allocated extent if the next extent has uncommitted data.

Rollback segments are shrunk either explicitly through the ’alter rollback segment … shrink to …’ command or implicitly by the SMON process. Implicit shrinkage can be disabled by:
PCTINCREASE has no affect on rollback segments. All extents will be sized by the setting of the next_extent storage attribute.
Setting the event 10512 will disable the implicit shrink operation performed by SMON.
Setting the initialization parameter ‘rbs_disable_shk’. There is no such parameter. Setting the event 10512 will disable the implicit shrinkage operation performed by SMON.

The Oracle server begins shrinking a rollback segment starting from the current extent +2

Rollback segment shrinkage will occur while optimal or minextents is not reached, there are at least two remaining extents, the extent is not busy, and the extent is not extent #0.

An extent is reused if all its blocks are inactive. RBS undo blocks are reused on a per extent basis. An undo block becomes inactive when the active transaction in the undo block commits.

correct order of Interested Transaction List (ITL) allocation.

1. Find an  Unused ITL
2. FInd ITL of oldest commited TX
3. DO a partial block cleanout that stops when an ITL becomes available
4. Extend ITL area

The variable portion of the transaction layer is dictated by the MAXTRANS parameter.
The INITRANS parameter dictates the number of ITL’s and hence the variable portion of the Transaction Layer.

An ITL must be acquired by any transaction wishing to modify a block. If an ITL is unavailable and there is no space left in the block, a transaction will wait.

A transaction that currently has an ITL within a block cannot update any row in the block if the required row is locked by a previous transaction. That transaction will wait on the TX enqueue.When attempting to update a row already held by a previous transaction, a transaction will wait on the TX enqueue in exclusive mode.

The free space credit field of the transaction layer maintains the space as freed for a given transaction, and that is returned on commit of the transaction.

When a transaction is unable to allocate an ITL within a data block for which it needs to modify a block, the transaction will:
That transaction will wait on the TX enqueue in share mode until an ITL becomes available within the block where the modification is required.

The Oracle server maintains the row header flag and lock byte (total 2 bytes) for the deleted row. It is necessary to keep these first two bytes to maintain the row lock. This is referred to as stub space.

The correct statistic Rollback changes – undo records applied is incremented for each link in the undo record chain.

The Data Block Address (DBA) in the Transaction Table slot indicates:
The beginning of the undo chain for the transaction  Correct! The DBA in the Transaction Table slot is the starting point for rolling back a transaction

the correct sequence of events at the COMMIT of a transaction.

1. FIND an scn value
2. update the transaction table slot with the scn
3. create a commit record in the redo log buffer
4. flush the redo log buffer to disk
5. release locks held on the rows and tables

The application of the undo to the data block is performed by the
The data layer ,and the transaction layer do not have the right to perform physical block-level changes.


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