10g中HASH GROUP BY引起的临时表空间不足

今天早上应用人员反映一个原本在9i上可以顺利完成的CTAS脚本,迁移到10g后运行总是报“ORA-1652: unable to extend temp segment by 128 in tablespace TS_HQY1_TEMP “无法扩展临时表空间的错误。应用人员表示该脚本涉及的数据量在迁移前后变化不大,而且令人匪夷所思的是在新的10g库上临时表空间大小已达40多个G,要远大于原9i库。很显然这不是由于临时表空间过小导致的该问题,更多的原因肯定是出在迁移后Oracle不同的行为方式上。
该脚本每月执行一次用以汇总数据,其中一个单表接近4亿行记录,GROUP BY操作涉及到的数据量十分庞大。我们来具体看一下这个SQL:

create table gprs_bill.zou_201007_cell_id as
select /* g_all_cdr01,60 */
 calling_num mobile_number,
 lac,
 lpad(cell_id, 5, '0') cell_id,
 count(*) c,
 sum(call_duration) call_duration,
 sum(decode(record_type, '00', 1, 0) * call_duration) moc_call_duration,
 sum(decode(record_type, '01', 1, 0) * call_duration) mtc_call_duarion
  from gprs_bill.g_all_cdr01
 where substr(calling_num, 1, 7) in
       (select mobile_prefix from gprs_bill.zou_mobile_prefix)
 group by calling_num, lac, lpad(cell_id, 5, '0');

SQL> set autotrace traceonly exp
SQL> select /* g_all_cdr01,60 */
  2  calling_num mobile_number,
  3  lac,
  4  lpad(cell_id,5,'0') cell_id,
  5  count(*) c,
  6  sum(call_duration) call_duration,
  7  sum(decode(record_type,'00',1,0)*call_duration) moc_call_duration,
  8  sum(decode(record_type,'01',1,0)*call_duration) mtc_call_duarion
  9  from  gprs_bill.g_all_cdr01
 10  where substr(calling_num,1,7) in (select mobile_prefix from gprs_bill.zou_mobile_prefix)
 11  group by
 12  calling_num ,
 13  lac,
 14  lpad(cell_id,5,'0');

Execution Plan
----------------------------------------------------------
Plan hash value: 212866585

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------

| Id  | Operation             | Name              | Rows  | Bytes |TempSpc| Cost
 (%CPU)| Time     |

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------

|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT      |                   |   229K|  9880K|       |  103
3K  (3)| 03:26:41 |

|   1 |  HASH GROUP BY        |                   |   229K|  9880K|    22M|  103
3K  (3)| 03:26:41 |

|*  2 |   HASH JOIN RIGHT SEMI|                   |   229K|  9880K|       |  103
0K  (3)| 03:26:10 |

|   3 |    TABLE ACCESS FULL  | ZOU_MOBILE_PREFIX |  1692 | 13536 |       |    1
1   (0)| 00:00:01 |

|   4 |    TABLE ACCESS FULL  | G_ALL_CDR01       |   388M|    13G|       |  102
6K  (2)| 03:25:21 |

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------

Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
---------------------------------------------------

   2 - access("MOBILE_PREFIX"=SUBSTR("CALLING_NUM",1,7))

可以看到Oracle使用了HASH GROUP BY 算法以实现数据分组;HASH算法是10g中新引入的分组算法。
下面我们来详细介绍下10g中数据分组的改动:
在10g中GROUP BY操作仍将引发排序操作,但10g中引入了新的算法,这些算法都不保证返回的数据行有序排列;在10g中如果想保证”GROUP BY”后返回的数据有序排列则需要强制使用”ORDER BY”子句,这点和9i是截然不同的。若你没有指定”ORDER BY”子句,则不能保证返回的结果正确排序。
在10g中”GROUP BY”子句更倾向于使用一种HASH算法而非原先的SORT算法来分组数据,HASH算法的CPU COST要低于原先的SORT算法。但这2种算法在10g中都不保证返回数据正常排序,当采用SORT算法时可能”碰巧”出现返回正常排序数据的状况。
MOS建议,如果迁移中出现大量不利的变化,则可以通过修改参数来确保沿用原先的算法。但需要注意的是,即便采用了以下参数仍不能保证10g后”GROUP BY”后返回的数据如9i中那样排序,你需要做的是加入显式的”ORDER BY”子句以保证Oracle为你做到这一点。

alter session set "_gby_hash_aggregation_enabled" = false;
alter session set optimizer_features_enable="9.2.0";
或者
alter session set optimizer_features_enable="8.1.7";

其中_gby_hash_aggregation_enabled隐式参数决定了Oracle是否可以启用新的HASH算法来进行数据分组(也适用于distinct等操作)。

对于以上说法我们通过实验进一步验证:

在11g中的测试如下:
SQL> select  * from v$version;
BANNER
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 - Production
PL/SQL Release 11.2.0.1.0 - Production
CORE    11.2.0.1.0      Production
TNS for 32-bit Windows: Version 11.2.0.1.0 - Production
NLSRTL Version 11.2.0.1.0 - Production
SQL> select  *  from youyus;
T1                 T2
---------- ----------
A                  10
B                  10
F                  30
G                  30
H                  40
I                  40
J                  40
L                  20
M                  20
已选择9行。
SQL>  analyze table youyus compute statistics for all columns;
表已分析。
SQL> set autotrace on;
SQL>  select t2,count(*) from youyus group by t2;
T2   COUNT(*)
---------- ----------
30          2
20          2
40          3
10          2
执行计划
----------------------------------------------------------
Plan hash value: 2940504347
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation          | Name   | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT   |        |     4 |     8 |     3  (34)| 00:00:01 |
|   1 |  HASH GROUP BY     |        |     4 |     8 |     3  (34)| 00:00:01 |
|   2 |   TABLE ACCESS FULL| YOUYUS |     9 |    18 |     2   (0)| 00:00:01 |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
/*可以看到使用了hash算法,且返回结果未按t2列大小顺序排列*/
SQL> select t2,count(*) from youyus group by t2 order by t2;
T2   COUNT(*)
---------- ----------
10          2
20          2
30          2
40          3
执行计划
----------------------------------------------------------
Plan hash value: 1349668650
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation          | Name   | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT   |        |     4 |     8 |     3  (34)| 00:00:01 |
|   1 |  SORT GROUP BY     |        |     4 |     8 |     3  (34)| 00:00:01 |
|   2 |   TABLE ACCESS FULL| YOUYUS |     9 |    18 |     2   (0)| 00:00:01 |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
/*加入order by子句后,又变回了SORT算法,而且正常排序*/
SQL> alter session set "_gby_hash_aggregation_enabled" = false;
会话已更改。
SQL> alter session set optimizer_features_enable="9.2.0";
会话已更改。
SQL> select t2,count(*) from youyus group by t2;
T2   COUNT(*)
---------- ----------
10          2
20          2
30          2
40          3
执行计划
----------------------------------------------------------
Plan hash value: 1349668650
-------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation          | Name   | Rows  | Bytes | Cost  |
-------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT   |        |     4 |     8 |    11 |
|   1 |  SORT GROUP BY     |        |     4 |     8 |    11 |
|   2 |   TABLE ACCESS FULL| YOUYUS |     9 |    18 |     2 |
-------------------------------------------------------------
Note
-----
- cpu costing is off (consider enabling it)
/*optimizer_features_enable设置为9.2.0后cpu cost被off了;返回数据正确排序,但我们要记住这是"侥幸"*/
SQL> alter session set optimizer_features_enable="10.2.0.5";
会话已更改。
SQL> select t2,count(*) from youyus group by t2;
T2   COUNT(*)
---------- ----------
10          2
20          2
30          2
40          3
执行计划
----------------------------------------------------------
Plan hash value: 1349668650
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation          | Name   | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT   |        |     4 |     8 |     3  (34)| 00:00:01 |
|   1 |  SORT GROUP BY     |        |     4 |     8 |     3  (34)| 00:00:01 |
|   2 |   TABLE ACCESS FULL| YOUYUS |     9 |    18 |     2   (0)| 00:00:01 |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
/*optimizer_features_enable设为10.2.0.5 一切正常*/
SQL> alter session set optimizer_features_enable="11.2.0.1";
会话已更改。
SQL> select t2,count(*) from youyus group by t2;
T2   COUNT(*)
---------- ----------
10          2
20          2
30          2
40          3
执行计划
----------------------------------------------------------
Plan hash value: 1349668650
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation          | Name   | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT   |        |     4 |     8 |     3  (34)| 00:00:01 |
|   1 |  SORT GROUP BY     |        |     4 |     8 |     3  (34)| 00:00:01 |
|   2 |   TABLE ACCESS FULL| YOUYUS |     9 |    18 |     2   (0)| 00:00:01 |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
/*11.2.0.1中没有变化*/
SQL> alter session set optimizer_features_enable="8.1.7";
会话已更改。
SQL> alter session set "_gby_hash_aggregation_enabled" =true;
会话已更改。
/*看看optimizer_features_enable设为8.1.7,而_gby_hash_aggregation_enabled为true,这种"矛盾"情况下的表现*/
SQL> select t2,count(*) from youyus group by t2;
T2   COUNT(*)
---------- ----------
30          2
20          2
40          3
10          2
执行计划
----------------------------------------------------------
Plan hash value: 2940504347
-------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation          | Name   | Rows  | Bytes | Cost  |
-------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT   |        |     4 |     8 |    10 |
|   1 |  HASH GROUP BY     |        |     4 |     8 |    10 |
|   2 |   TABLE ACCESS FULL| YOUYUS |     9 |    18 |     1 |
-------------------------------------------------------------
Note
-----
- cpu costing is off (consider enabling it)
/*居然仍采用了HASH GROUP BY,看起来类似_gby_hash_aggregation_enabled这类参数优先级要高于optimizer_features_enable*/
9i上的表现如下:
SQL> select * from v$version;
BANNER
----------------------------------------------------------------
Oracle9i Enterprise Edition Release 9.2.0.4.0 - Production
PL/SQL Release 9.2.0.4.0 - Production
CORE    9.2.0.3.0       Production
TNS for Linux: Version 9.2.0.4.0 - Production
NLSRTL Version 9.2.0.4.0 - Production
SQL> analyze table youyus_9i compute statistics for all columns;
Table analyzed.
SQL> select * from youyus_9i;
T1         T2
-- ----------
A          10
B          10
F          30
G          30
H          40
I          40
J          40
L          20
M          20
9 rows selected.
SQL> alter session set optimizer_mode=ALL_ROWS;
Session altered.
SQL> select t2,count(*) from youyus_9i group by t2;
T2   COUNT(*)
---------- ----------
10          2
20          2
30          2
40          3
Execution Plan
----------------------------------------------------------
0      SELECT STATEMENT Optimizer=ALL_ROWS (Cost=4 Card=4 Bytes=8)
1    0   SORT (GROUP BY) (Cost=4 Card=4 Bytes=8)
2    1     TABLE ACCESS (FULL) OF 'YOUYUS_9I' (Cost=2 Card=21 Bytes
=42)
/*9i下虽然没有指定order by,但我们可以放心返回的数据总是排序的;*/
SQL> alter session set "_gby_hash_aggregation_enabled" =true;
alter session set "_gby_hash_aggregation_enabled" =true
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-02248: invalid option for ALTER SESSION
/*9i下不存在_gby_hash_aggregation_enabled隐式参数*/
That's great!

应用脚本没有数据一定要正确排序的强制要求,但使用HASH GROUP BY算法后临时表空间的使用量大幅上升,远大于之前在9i上的使用量,最后导致语句无法顺利完成。首先想到的当然是通过修改_gby_hash_aggregation_enabled参数恢复到原先的SORT算法,并观察其临时表空间使用量:

SQL> alter session set "_gby_hash_aggregation_enabled"=false;
Session altered.
SQL> select /* g_all_cdr01,60 */
2  calling_num mobile_number,
3  lac,
4  lpad(cell_id,5,'0') cell_id,
5  count(*) c,
6  sum(call_duration) call_duration,
7  sum(decode(record_type,'00',1,0)*call_duration) moc_call_duration,
8  sum(decode(record_type,'01',1,0)*call_duration) mtc_call_duarion
9  from  gprs_bill.g_all_cdr01
10  where substr(calling_num,1,7) in (select mobile_prefix from gprs_bill.zou_mobile_prefix)
11  group by
12  calling_num ,
13  lac,
14  lpad(cell_id,5,'0');
Execution Plan
----------------------------------------------------------
Plan hash value: 4013005149
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------
| Id  | Operation             | Name              | Rows  | Bytes |TempSpc| Cost
(%CPU)| Time     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT      |                   |   229K|  9880K|       |  103
3K  (3)| 03:26:41 |
|   1 |  SORT GROUP BY        |                   |   229K|  9880K|    22M|  103
3K  (3)| 03:26:41 |
|*  2 |   HASH JOIN RIGHT SEMI|                   |   229K|  9880K|       |  103
0K  (3)| 03:26:10 |
|   3 |    TABLE ACCESS FULL  | ZOU_MOBILE_PREFIX |  1692 | 13536 |       |    1
1   (0)| 00:00:01 |
|   4 |    TABLE ACCESS FULL  | G_ALL_CDR01       |   388M|    13G|       |  102
6K  (2)| 03:25:21 |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------
Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
---------------------------------------------------
2 - access("MOBILE_PREFIX"=SUBSTR("CALLING_NUM",1,7))
/*重新执行出现问题的脚本*/
create table gprs_bill.zou_201007_cell_id as
select /* g_all_cdr01,60 */
calling_num mobile_number,
lac,
lpad(cell_id,5,'0') cell_id,
count(*) c,
sum(call_duration) call_duration,
sum(decode(record_type,'00',1,0)*call_duration) moc_call_duration,
sum(decode(record_type,'01',1,0)*call_duration) mtc_call_duarion
from  gprs_bill.g_all_cdr01
where substr(calling_num,1,7) in (select mobile_prefix from gprs_bill.zou_mobile_prefix)
group by
calling_num ,
lac,
lpad(cell_id,5,'0');

可以看到在会话级别设置_gby_hash_aggregation_enabled为false后,Oracle不再采用10g中的HASH分组算法;因为该CTAS SQL脚本运行时间较长,我们通过动态视图V$SORT_USAGE来观察其运行期间的排序段使用量:

SQL> set time   on;
14:30:59 SQL> select tablespace,contents,segtype,blocks*8/1024 from v$sort_usage where username='GPRS_BILL';
TABLESPACE                      CONTENTS  SEGTYPE   BLOCKS*8/1024
------------------------------- --------- --------- -------------
TS_HQY1_TEMP                    TEMPORARY SORT               9349
14:35:59 SQL> /
TABLESPACE                      CONTENTS  SEGTYPE   BLOCKS*8/1024
------------------------------- --------- --------- -------------
TS_HQY1_TEMP                    TEMPORARY SORT              10011
/*5分钟内共用10011-9349=662MB 临时空间*/
15:02:46 SQL> select target ,totalwork,sofar,time_remaining,elapsed_seconds from v$session_longops where sofar!=totalwork;
TARGET                                                            TOTALWORK      SOFAR TIME_REMAINING ELAPSED_SECONDS
---------------------------------------------------------------- ---------- ---------- -------------- ---------------
GPRS_BILL.G_ALL_CDR01                                               5575890    5435796            143            5557
15:05:10 SQL> select target ,totalwork,sofar,time_remaining,elapsed_seconds from v$session_longops where sofar!=totalwork;
TARGET                                                            TOTALWORK      SOFAR TIME_REMAINING ELAPSED_SECONDS
---------------------------------------------------------------- ---------- ---------- -------------- ---------------
GPRS_BILL.G_ALL_CDR01                                               5575890    5562082             14            5692
15:05:13 SQL> select tablespace,contents,segtype,blocks*8/1024 from v$sort_usage where username='GPRS_BILL';
TABLESPACE                      CONTENTS  SEGTYPE   BLOCKS*8/1024
------------------------------- --------- --------- -------------
TS_HQY1_TEMP                    TEMPORARY SORT              13835
15:12:22 SQL> select tablespace,contents,segtype,blocks*8/1024 from v$sort_usage where username='GPRS_BILL';
TABLESPACE                      CONTENTS  SEGTYPE   BLOCKS*8/1024
------------------------------- --------- --------- -------------
TS_HQY1_TEMP                    TEMPORARY SORT              13922
/* 排序已经完成,排序段不再增长*/

该分组操作最后排序段使用量为13922MB,在客户可以接受的范围内。看起来新引入的HASH算法虽然有CPU成本低于SORT算法的优势,但可能消耗大量临时空间,可谓有得有失。

dbms_stats收集模式在9i和10g上的区别

大约2个月前,一位业内人士问我为什么9i CBO迁移到10g上会出现许多执行计划改变导致的性能,他当然是为了能考考我;实际上我接触过的环境大多在8i/9i下没有使用CBO优化模式,从8i/9i的RBO模式跨越到10g上较为成熟的CBO优化模式,这当中出现执行计划讹误可以说是情理之中的;而9i CBO到10上的CBO问题也不少,我首先想到的是统计信息收集上存在区别,但具体是什么区别却又说不上。那位业内人士听了我的回答,笑,笑而不语。

Oracle十分博大,博大到可以称为Oracle的世界,很多东西长期不用就会遭人淡忘;我们来复习下9i和10g上统计信息收集的一些改动。

在9i中收集统计信息时其默认的MOTHOD_OPT模式为’FOR ALL COLUMNS SIZE 1’,使用这种模式时Oracle只收集所有列上最基础的统计信息,包括了最小/大值,distinct值等信息;但是不会收集列上的直方图。对那些数据均匀分布和没有出现在SQL语句中where子句中作为条件的列来说,这样的统计信息完全足够了。然而如果列上的数据分布并不均匀就可能导致CBO的执行计划成本计算不准确,这时我们需要手动对这些列上的直方图进行统计。

10g上对dbms_stats包中默认的METHOD_OPT模式做了修正,这显然是引起9i CBO迁移到10g CBO后易发地执行计划变化的一个重要因素,也是那位业内人士所要问的题眼。

新的默认METHOD_OPT值为”FOR ALL COLUMNS SIZE AUTO”,这意味着Oracle将通过内部算法自动决定那些列上需要收集统计信息,而那些列上不需要。是否收集直方图取决于列上数据的分布情况和与对应表相关的工作负载,这种工作负载可以解释为数据库中存在某些需要参考这些列的详细信息来计算执行成本的SQL语句。

这种方式听上去十分理想,似乎Oracle可以默默无闻地为我们抓取所有急需的统计信息。

然而问题是在许多环境中Oracle没有做出是否需要收集列上直方图的正确决定。实践证明Oracle有可能收集许许多多不必要的直方图,同时又放弃了许多需要收集的直方图。

在轻量级的应用环境中这种直方图收集不当的问题造成的影响大多数时间不为人们所察觉,相反在performance critical或已经形成性能瓶颈的环境中则可能是一场不大不小的麻烦。

此外Oracle还改变了列上密度(density)信息的计算方式。该值常被Oracle用来确定谓词选择性,当突然出现额外不必要的直方图时可能造成的广泛显著地性能影响(当然好的影响也可能出现,只是概率上……)。

显然这些莫名出现的不速之客也会给共享池造成影响,library cache与row cache相关的闩可能短期内车水马龙,如果您的应用数据表上有成百上千的列那么情况可能更糟(所以说开发要遵循范式,没有规矩的最后结果往往是应用不可用,项目失败。别告诉我你的应用苟且地活着,那同样意味着项目失败)!

DataGuard Managed recovery hang

Our team deleted some archivelog by mistake. Rolled the database forwards by RMAN incremental recovery to an SCN. Did a manual recovery to sync it with the primary. Managed recovery is now failing.
alter database recover managed standby database disconnect

Alert log has :

Fri Jan 22 13:50:22 2010
Attempt to start background Managed Standby Recovery process
MRP0 started with pid=12
MRP0: Background Managed Standby Recovery process started
Media Recovery Waiting for thread 1 seq# 193389
Fetching gap sequence for thread 1, gap sequence 193389-193391
Trying FAL server: ITS
Fri Jan 22 13:50:28 2010
Completed: alter database recover managed standby database d
Fri Jan 22 13:53:25 2010
Failed to request gap sequence. Thread #: 1, gap sequence: 193389-193391
All FAL server has been attempted.

Managed recovery was working earlier today after the Rman incremental and resolved two gaps automatically. But it now appears hung with the standby falling behind the primary.

SQL> show parameter fal
NAME TYPE VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
fal_client string ITS_STBY
fal_server string ITS
[v08k608:ITS:oracle]$ tnsping ITS_STBY
TNS Ping Utility for Solaris: Version 9.2.0.7.0 - Production on 22-JAN-2010 15:01:17
Copyright (c) 1997 Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.
Used parameter files:
/oracle/product/9.2.0/network/admin/sqlnet.ora
Used TNSNAMES adapter to resolve the alias
Attempting to contact (DESCRIPTION = (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL= TCP)(Host= v08k608.am.mot.com)(Port= 1526)) (CONNECT_DATA = (SID = ITS)))
OK (10 msec)
[v08k608:ITS:oracle]$ tnsping ITS
TNS Ping Utility for Solaris: Version 9.2.0.7.0 - Production on 22-JAN-2010 15:01:27
Copyright (c) 1997 Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.
Used parameter files:
/oracle/product/9.2.0/network/admin/sqlnet.ora
Used TNSNAMES adapter to resolve the alias
Attempting to contact (DESCRIPTION = (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL= TCP)(Host= 187.10.68.75)(Port= 1526)) (CONNECT_DATA = (SID = ITS)))
OK (320 msec)
Primary has :
SQL> show parameter log_archive_dest_2
log_archive_dest_2 string SERVICE=DRITS_V08K608 reopen=6
0 max_failure=10 net_timeout=1
80 LGWR ASYNC=20480 OPTIONAL
NAME TYPE VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
log_archive_dest_state_2 string ENABLE
[ITS]/its15/oradata/ITS/arch> tnsping DRITS_V08K608
TNS Ping Utility for Solaris: Version 9.2.0.7.0 - Production on 22-JAN-2010 15:03:24
Copyright (c) 1997 Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.
Used parameter files:
/oracle/product/9.2.0/network/admin/sqlnet.ora
Used TNSNAMES adapter to resolve the alias
Attempting to contact (DESCRIPTION = (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL= TCP)(Host= 10.177.13.57)(Port= 1526)) (CONNECT_DATA = (SID = ITS)))
OK (330 msec)

The arch process on the primary database might hang due to a bug below so that it couldn’t ship the missing archive log
files to the standby database.

BUG 6113783 ARC PROCESSES CAN HANG INDEFINITELY ON NETWORK
[ Not published so not viewable in My Oracle Support ]
Fixed 11.2, 10.2.0.5 patchset

We could work workaround the issue by killing the arch processes on the primary site and they will be respawned
automatically immediately without harming the primary database.

[maclean@rh2 ~]$ ps -ef|grep arc
maclean   8231     1  0 22:24 ?        00:00:00 ora_arc0_PROD
maclean   8233     1  0 22:24 ?        00:00:00 ora_arc1_PROD
maclean   8350  8167  0 22:24 pts/0    00:00:00 grep arc
[maclean@rh2 ~]$ kill -9 8231 8233
[maclean@rh2 ~]$ ps -ef|grep arc
maclean   8389     1  0 22:25 ?        00:00:00 ora_arc0_PROD
maclean   8391     1  1 22:25 ?        00:00:00 ora_arc1_PROD
maclean   8393  8167  0 22:25 pts/0    00:00:00 grep arc
and alert log will have:
Fri Jul 30 22:25:27 EDT 2010
ARCH: Detected ARCH process failure
ARCH: Detected ARCH process failure
ARCH: STARTING ARCH PROCESSES
ARC0 started with pid=26, OS id=8389
Fri Jul 30 22:25:27 EDT 2010
ARC0: Archival started
ARC1: Archival started
ARCH: STARTING ARCH PROCESSES COMPLETE
ARC1 started with pid=27, OS id=8391
Fri Jul 30 22:25:27 EDT 2010
ARC0: Becoming the 'no FAL' ARCH
ARC0: Becoming the 'no SRL' ARCH
Fri Jul 30 22:25:27 EDT 2010
ARC1: Becoming the heartbeat ARCH

Actually if we don’t kill some fatal process in 10g , oracle will respawn all nonfatal processes.
For example:

[maclean@rh2 ~]$ ps -ef|grep ora_|grep -v grep
maclean  14264     1  0 23:16 ?        00:00:00 ora_pmon_PROD
maclean  14266     1  0 23:16 ?        00:00:00 ora_psp0_PROD
maclean  14268     1  0 23:16 ?        00:00:00 ora_mman_PROD
maclean  14270     1  0 23:16 ?        00:00:00 ora_dbw0_PROD
maclean  14272     1  0 23:16 ?        00:00:00 ora_lgwr_PROD
maclean  14274     1  0 23:16 ?        00:00:00 ora_ckpt_PROD
maclean  14276     1  0 23:16 ?        00:00:00 ora_smon_PROD
maclean  14278     1  0 23:16 ?        00:00:00 ora_reco_PROD
maclean  14338     1  0 23:16 ?        00:00:00 ora_arc0_PROD
maclean  14340     1  0 23:16 ?        00:00:00 ora_arc1_PROD
maclean  14452     1  0 23:17 ?        00:00:00 ora_s000_PROD
maclean  14454     1  0 23:17 ?        00:00:00 ora_d000_PROD
maclean  14456     1  0 23:17 ?        00:00:00 ora_cjq0_PROD
maclean  14458     1  0 23:17 ?        00:00:00 ora_qmnc_PROD
maclean  14460     1  0 23:17 ?        00:00:00 ora_mmon_PROD
maclean  14462     1  0 23:17 ?        00:00:00 ora_mmnl_PROD
maclean  14467     1  0 23:17 ?        00:00:00 ora_q000_PROD
maclean  14568     1  0 23:18 ?        00:00:00 ora_q001_PROD
[maclean@rh2 ~]$ ps -ef|grep ora_|grep -v pmon|grep -v ckpt |grep -v lgwr|grep -v smon|grep -v grep|grep -v dbw|grep -v psp|grep -v mman |grep -v rec|awk '{print $2}'|xargs kill -9
and alert log will have:
Fri Jul 30 23:20:58 EDT 2010
ARCH: Detected ARCH process failure
ARCH: Detected ARCH process failure
ARCH: STARTING ARCH PROCESSES
ARC0 started with pid=20, OS id=14959
Fri Jul 30 23:20:58 EDT 2010
ARC0: Archival started
ARC1: Archival started
ARCH: STARTING ARCH PROCESSES COMPLETE
Fri Jul 30 23:20:58 EDT 2010
ARC0: Becoming the 'no FAL' ARCH
ARC0: Becoming the 'no SRL' ARCH
ARC1 started with pid=21, OS id=14961
ARC1: Becoming the heartbeat ARCH
Fri Jul 30 23:21:29 EDT 2010
found dead shared server 'S000', pid = (10, 3)
found dead dispatcher 'D000', pid = (11, 3)
Fri Jul 30 23:22:29 EDT 2010
Restarting dead background process CJQ0
Restarting dead background process QMNC
CJQ0 started with pid=12, OS id=15124
Fri Jul 30 23:22:29 EDT 2010
Restarting dead background process MMON
QMNC started with pid=13, OS id=15126
Fri Jul 30 23:22:29 EDT 2010
Restarting dead background process MMNL
MMON started with pid=14, OS id=15128
MMNL started with pid=16, OS id=15132
That's all right!

重做日志浪费(redo wastage)

Oracle中联机日志文件(online redo log)在大多平台上以512 字节为一个标准块。

(HPUX,Tru64 Unix上是1024bytes,SCO UNIX,Reliant UNIX上是2048bytes,而MVS,MPE/ix上是4096bytes,虽然以上许多UNIX已经不再流行,实际情况可以通过

select max(l.lebsz) log_block_size_kccle

from sys.x$kccle l

where l.inst_id = userenv(‘Instance’)   语句查询到)

LGWR后台进程写出REDO时未必能填满最后的当前日志块。举例而言,假设redo buffer中有1025字节的内容需要写出,则1025=512+512+1 共占用三个重做日志标准块,前2个标准块被填满而第三个标准块只使用了1个字节。在LGWR完成写出前,需要释放”redo allocation”闩,在此之前SGA中索引”redo buffer”信息的变量将指向未被填满块后面的一个重做块,换而言之有511字节的空间被LGWR跳过了,这就是我们说的redo wastage;我们可以通过分析v$sysstat动态视图中的redo wastage统计信息了解实例生命周期中的重做浪费量。

SQL> col name for a25
SQL> select name,value from v$sysstat where name like '%wastage%';
NAME                           VALUE
------------------------- ----------
redo wastage                  132032

redo wastage的一个图示:

为什么要浪费这部分空间呢?实际上,这种做法十分有益于LGWR的串行I/O模式。redo wastage并不是问题或者Bug,而是Oracle故意为之的。当然过量的redo wastage也不是什么好事,一般是LGWR写出过于频繁的症状表现。9i以后很少有因为隐式参数_log_io_size过小而导致的LGWR过载了,如果在您的系统中发现redo wastage的问题不小,那么无限制地滥用commit操作往往是引起问题的罪魁祸首,减少不必要的commit语句,把commit从循环中移除都将利于减少redo wastage。

我们来看一下关于redo wastage的演示:

SQL> select distinct bytes/1024/1024 from v$log;
BYTES/1024/1024
---------------
50                          /*确认联机日志文件大小为50MB*/
SQL> archive log list;                 /*确认数据库处于归档状态*/
Database log mode              Archive Mode
Automatic archival             Enabled
Archive destination            /s01/arch
SQL> set time on;
19:49:45 SQL> alter system switch logfile;           /*切换日志,清理现场*/
System altered.
19:51:07 SQL> col name for a25
19:51:16 SQL> select name,value from v$sysstat where name in ('redo size','redo wastage');
NAME                           VALUE
------------------------- ----------
redo size                 1418793324
redo wastage                88286544               /*演示开始时的基础统计值*/
19:51:19 SQL> begin
19:52:10   2  for i in 1..550000 loop
19:52:10   3  insert into tv values(1,'a');
19:52:10   4   commit;
19:52:10   5   end loop;
19:52:10   6   end;
19:52:11   7  /
/*匿名块中commit操作位于loop循环内,将导致大量redo wastage*/
PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.
19:53:07 SQL> select name,value from v$sysstat where name in ('redo size','redo wastage');
NAME                           VALUE
------------------------- ----------
redo size                 1689225404
redo wastage               112011352
/*频繁提交的匿名块产生了 1689225404-1418793324=257MB的redo,其中存在112011352-88286544=22MB的redo wastage*/
19:53:14 SQL>  begin
19:53:33   2  for i in 1..550000 loop
19:53:33   3  insert into tv values(1,'a');
19:53:33   4  end loop;
19:53:33   5    commit;
19:53:33   6   end;
19:53:34   7  /
/* 此匿名块中commit操作被移除loop循环中,批量修改数据后仅在最后提交一次*/
PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.
19:53:59 SQL> select name,value from v$sysstat where name in ('redo size','redo wastage');
NAME                           VALUE
------------------------- ----------
redo size                 1828546240
redo wastage               112061296
/*稀疏提交的匿名块最后产生了1828546240-1689225404=132MB的重做,而redo wastage为112061296-112011352=48k*/

可能您会很奇怪前者不是只比后者多出22MB的redo浪费吗,为什么总的redo量差了那么多?

我们需要注意到commit本身也是要产生redo的,而且其所产生的还不少!就以上演示来看频繁提交的过程中,commit所占用的redo空间几乎接近一半(257-132-22)/257=40%,而每次commit的平均redo量为(257-132-22)*1024*1024/550000=196 bytes。

commit操作是事务ACID的基础之一,合理运用commit可以帮我们构建健壮可靠的应用,而滥用它必将是另一场灾难!

latch free:cache buffer handles造成的SQL性能问题

数月之前,一位新疆的同事反映客户的某套单节点数据库存在性能问题,某个SQL长时间运行没有结束,在该SQL运行期间大量回话处于latch free等待中。因为相隔遥遥千里,同事之间是通过Email交流的;他首先给我发来了该问题SQL的相关explain_log。其中该语句的执行计划如下:

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation                               |  Name               | Rows  | Bytes | Cost  |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT                        |                     |     1 |  1956 |    13 |
|*  1 |  FILTER                                 |                     |       |       |       |
|   2 |   NESTED LOOPS OUTER                    |                     |     1 |  1956 |    13 |
|   3 |    NESTED LOOPS OUTER                   |                     |     1 |  1942 |    12 |
|   4 |     NESTED LOOPS OUTER                  |                     |     1 |  1924 |    11 |
|   5 |      NESTED LOOPS                       |                     |     1 |  1906 |    10 |
|   6 |       NESTED LOOPS                      |                     |     1 |  1856 |     9 |
|   7 |        NESTED LOOPS                     |                     |     5 |  9055 |     8 |
|   8 |         NESTED LOOPS OUTER              |                     |     5 |  8575 |     7 |
|   9 |          NESTED LOOPS OUTER             |                     |     5 |  8280 |     6 |
|  10 |           NESTED LOOPS OUTER            |                     |     5 |  7785 |     5 |
|  11 |            NESTED LOOPS OUTER           |                     |     5 |  7290 |     4 |
|  12 |             NESTED LOOPS OUTER          |                     |     5 |  4130 |     3 |
|* 13 |              TABLE ACCESS BY INDEX ROWID| S_PROD_INT          |     5 |  2960 |     2 |
|* 14 |               INDEX RANGE SCAN          | S_PROD_INT_M53      |   326 |       |     5 |
|  15 |              TABLE ACCESS BY INDEX ROWID| S_PROD_LN           |     1 |   234 |     1 |
|* 16 |               INDEX UNIQUE SCAN         | S_PROD_LN_P1        |     1 |       |       |
|  17 |             TABLE ACCESS BY INDEX ROWID | S_PROD_INT_CRSE     |     1 |   632 |     1 |
|* 18 |              INDEX RANGE SCAN           | S_PROD_INT_CRSE_U1  |     1 |       |     1 |
|  19 |            TABLE ACCESS BY INDEX ROWID  | S_LIT               |     1 |    99 |     1 |
|* 20 |             INDEX UNIQUE SCAN           | S_LIT_P1            |     1 |       |       |
|  21 |           TABLE ACCESS BY INDEX ROWID   | S_LIT               |     1 |    99 |     1 |
|* 22 |            INDEX UNIQUE SCAN            | S_LIT_P1            |     1 |       |       |
|  23 |          TABLE ACCESS BY INDEX ROWID    | S_PROD_INT_TNTX     |     1 |    59 |     1 |
|* 24 |           INDEX RANGE SCAN              | S_PROD_INT_TNTX_U1  |     1 |       |     1 |
|  25 |         TABLE ACCESS BY INDEX ROWID     | S_VOD               |     1 |    96 |     1 |
|* 26 |          INDEX RANGE SCAN               | S_VOD_U2            |     1 |       |     2 |
|* 27 |        TABLE ACCESS BY INDEX ROWID      | S_VOD_VER           |     1 |    45 |     1 |
|* 28 |         INDEX RANGE SCAN                | S_VOD_VER_U1        |     2 |       |     4 |
|  29 |       TABLE ACCESS BY INDEX ROWID       | S_ISS_OBJ_DEF       |     1 |    50 |     1 |
|* 30 |        INDEX RANGE SCAN                 | S_ISS_OBJ_DEF_M3    |     1 |       |     2 |
|  31 |      TABLE ACCESS BY INDEX ROWID        | S_CTLG_CAT          |     1 |    18 |     1 |
|* 32 |       INDEX UNIQUE SCAN                 | S_CTLG_CAT_P1       |     1 |       |       |
|  33 |     TABLE ACCESS BY INDEX ROWID         | S_CTLG_CAT          |     1 |    18 |     1 |
|* 34 |      INDEX UNIQUE SCAN                  | S_CTLG_CAT_P1       |     1 |       |       |
|  35 |    TABLE ACCESS BY INDEX ROWID          | S_CTLG_CAT          |     1 |    14 |     1 |
|* 36 |     INDEX UNIQUE SCAN                   | S_CTLG_CAT_P1       |     1 |       |       |
|  37 |   NESTED LOOPS                          |                     |     1 |   137 |     7 |
|  38 |    NESTED LOOPS                         |                     |     4 |   456 |     6 |
|  39 |     NESTED LOOPS                        |                     |     4 |   364 |     5 |
|  40 |      NESTED LOOPS                       |                     |     2 |   142 |     4 |
|  41 |       NESTED LOOPS                      |                     |     1 |    53 |     3 |
|  42 |        NESTED LOOPS                     |                     |     3 |   120 |     2 |
|* 43 |         INDEX RANGE SCAN                | S_CTLG_CAT_PROD_U1  |     3 |    57 |     2 |
|* 44 |         TABLE ACCESS BY INDEX ROWID     | S_CTLG_CAT          |     1 |    21 |     1 |
|* 45 |          INDEX UNIQUE SCAN              | S_CTLG_CAT_P1       |     1 |       |       |
|* 46 |        TABLE ACCESS BY INDEX ROWID      | S_CTLG              |     1 |    13 |     1 |
|* 47 |         INDEX UNIQUE SCAN               | S_CTLG_P1           |     1 |       |       |
|  48 |       TABLE ACCESS BY INDEX ROWID       | S_PARTY_CTGRY       |     2 |    36 |     1 |
|* 49 |        INDEX RANGE SCAN                 | S_PARTY_CTGRY_F1    |     2 |       |     1 |
|  50 |      TABLE ACCESS BY INDEX ROWID        | S_PARTY_RPT_REL     |     2 |    40 |     1 |
|* 51 |       INDEX RANGE SCAN                  | S_PARTY_RPTREL_F50  |     2 |       |     1 |
|  52 |     TABLE ACCESS BY INDEX ROWID         | S_PARTY_PER         |     1 |    23 |     1 |
|* 53 |      INDEX RANGE SCAN                   | S_PARTY_PER_F1      |     1 |       |     2 |
|* 54 |    INDEX RANGE SCAN                     | S_PARTY_PER_U1      |     1 |    23 |     3 |
|  55 |   NESTED LOOPS                          |                     |     1 |   157 |     8 |
|  56 |    NESTED LOOPS                         |                     |     1 |   144 |     7 |
|  57 |     NESTED LOOPS                        |                     |     1 |   125 |     6 |
|  58 |      NESTED LOOPS                       |                     |     1 |   104 |     5 |
|  59 |       NESTED LOOPS                      |                     |     1 |    86 |     4 |
|  60 |        NESTED LOOPS                     |                     |     4 |   264 |     3 |
|  61 |         NESTED LOOPS                    |                     |     2 |    86 |     2 |
|* 62 |          INDEX RANGE SCAN               | S_PARTY_PER_U1      |     2 |    46 |     4 |
|  63 |          TABLE ACCESS BY INDEX ROWID    | S_POSTN             |     1 |    20 |     1 |
|* 64 |           INDEX UNIQUE SCAN             | S_POSTN_P1          |     1 |       |       |
|* 65 |         INDEX RANGE SCAN                | S_PARTY_PER_U1      |     2 |    46 |     3 |
|* 66 |        INDEX RANGE SCAN                 | S_PARTY_RPT_REL_U2  |     1 |    20 |     1 |
|* 67 |       INDEX RANGE SCAN                  | S_PARTY_CTGRY_U1    |     1 |    18 |     1 |
|* 68 |      TABLE ACCESS BY INDEX ROWID        | S_CTLG_CAT          |     1 |    21 |     1 |
|* 69 |       INDEX UNIQUE SCAN                 | S_CTLG_CAT_P1       |     1 |       |       |
|* 70 |     INDEX RANGE SCAN                    | S_CTLG_CAT_PROD_U1  |     1 |    19 |     1 |
|* 71 |    TABLE ACCESS BY INDEX ROWID          | S_CTLG              |     1 |    13 |     1 |
|* 72 |     INDEX UNIQUE SCAN                   | S_CTLG_P1           |     1 |       |       |
|  73 |   NESTED LOOPS                          |                     |     1 |    58 |     3 |
|  74 |    NESTED LOOPS                         |                     |     3 |   135 |     2 |
|* 75 |     INDEX RANGE SCAN                    | S_CTLG_CAT_PROD_U1  |     2 |    38 |     2 |
|* 76 |     TABLE ACCESS BY INDEX ROWID         | S_CTLG_CAT          |     1 |    26 |     1 |
|* 77 |      INDEX UNIQUE SCAN                  | S_CTLG_CAT_P1       |     1 |       |       |
|* 78 |    TABLE ACCESS BY INDEX ROWID          | S_CTLG              |     1 |    13 |     1 |
|* 79 |     INDEX UNIQUE SCAN                   | S_CTLG_P1           |     1 |       |       |
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

该SQL涉及近四十个表和索引的链接操作,而且全部采用嵌套循环链接模式,是典型的siebel应用。这个SQL的执行计划十分复杂,我甚至不愿意去看它;既然从执行计划上进一步分析过于违背“惰性”,我首先想到的还是从wait interface入手,毕竟OWI是”useless”的。因为无法远程操作,反复收集信息会让整个过程十分缓慢,一口气问对方要了10046,errorstack,latches的dump信息,以及该数据库的完整RDA报告。

既然是latch free等待,那么总要先定位到相关的latch才好进一步分析,我们首先看10046 trace:

cat    siebdb1_ora_15465.trc |grep "nam='latch free'"|awk '{print $7}' |sort|uniq    -c
1 p1=-4611685984823284696
169 p1=-4611685984823317640
1 p1=-4611685988591416672
1 p1=-4611685988592487696
2 p1=-4611685988692060472
1 p1=-4611685988694684144
1 p1=-4611685988705526816
1 p1=-4611685988733017136
1 p1=-4611685988779484112
1 p1=-4611685988784059264
1 p1=-4611685988787329592
1 p1=-4611685988788323152
1 p1=-4611685988800312448
2 p1=-4611685988805347840
24 p1=-4611685988806714976
2 p1=-4611685988837854328
7 p1=-4611685988841028520
1 p1=-4611685988869432648
1 p1=-4611685988871320920

通过以上脚本处理,我们可以看到在执行过程中出现了各种latch free,出现最频繁的是p1=-4611685984823317640的栓。latch free等待事件中p1所代表的是会话所等待栓的地址。-4611685984823317640换算到16进制为C0000007D2F56B78。我们看看这个栓到底是何方神圣:

 c0000007d2f56b78 cache buffer handles level=3
Location from where latch is held: kcbzfs:
Context saved from call: 0
state=busy
gotten 2734921346 times wait, failed first 656272521 sleeps 44808579
gotten 0 times nowait, failed: 0

当会话需要pin住buffer header时它首先要获去buffer handle,得到buffer handle的过程中首先要抢占cache buffer handles栓,为了避免对于cache buffer handles栓的过度争用,每个会话被允许cache一小撮buffer handles,也叫保留集(reserved set)。该保留集的上限由隐式参数_db_handles_cached(默认为5)所控制,在此基础上会话在执行不是十分复杂的SQL时不必反复申请栓。
同时存在一些十分复杂的语句,需要同时pin住大量的缓存,此时若存在空闲的handle,会话被允许索要手头5个cached buffer handles以外的handle。也为了限制单个会话的资源占用量,Oracle通过内部算法总是尽量让每个进程能够pin住”合理份额“的buffer,由此单个会话同一时间所能持有的总handle数等于db_block_buffers/processes,隐式参数_cursor_db_buffers_pinned指出了该值。另cache buffer handles并没有子栓,仅有父栓本身,所以如果系统中有大量复杂SQL,会话所能cache的buffer handles远不足以满足需求时,该栓就成为整个系统性能的瓶颈,甚至可能出现潜在的死锁/饿死问题。
结合我们从trace中获取的实际信息,cache buffer handles的命中率为1-656272521/2734921346=76%;一般来说如果系统中某个栓的命中率低于95%时,我们就可以认为该栓的争用较为激烈了;而此处一个父栓的命中率到了80%以下,我们很难想象其性能恶化状态。
在同事发给我的RDA中探索,从resource limit栏目中可以看到该实例的会话高水位从未超过2500,而实例设定的processes值则为6000,这是一个很多初级DBA或施工方会犯的错误,认为设定高一些的processes值可以避免出现ora-00020错误从而高枕无忧,殊不知Oracle中许多隐式参数的分配是针对process数来计算的,资源总数是有限的,process数多则单个会话所能操控的理论资源数相应减少,这不仅在Oracle中,几乎是放之四海皆准的原理。
极有可能是过高的processes参数影响了_cursor_db_buffers_pinned,而该问题SQL除了十分复杂外还有全部采用nested loop链接方式的问题,这就要求同时时刻需pin住大量不同表和索引的buffer,于是在SQL执行伊始会话尝试pin住了一部分的buffer,但因为最终达到了_cursor_db_buffers_pinned所指定的上限,该会话在持有cache buffer handles栓的情况下处于hang状态,进一步导致了大量其他会话因latch free等待而阻塞。
当时给同事的最主要建议就是降低processes参数,从该系统的V$resource_limit动态视图来看,将processes设到3000就绰绰有余了;同时我们可以增大隐式参数_db_handles_cached以避免系统中对该栓的争用。

几天后,同事回信告诉我开发人员通过其他途径绕过了该问题,但我还是建议他在未来可能的offline计划中加入修改processes和_db_handles_cached参数的操作。

这个case发生几个月后,我无意中从MOS中发现以下note:

Hdr: 9328032 10.2.0.3 RDBMS 10.2.0.3 BUFFER CACHE PRODID-5 PORTID-23
Abstract: INCREASE IN CACHE BUFFER CHAINS/HANDLES WAITS
*** 01/29/10 05:41 am ***
TAR:
----
3-1375394871
PROBLEM:
--------
Today, and despite no significant change in workload we have increased waits
on these two latches:
29Jan2010_1030_1045 : Top 5 Timed Events
   Avg %Total
29Jan2010_1030_1045 : ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  wait   Call
29Jan2010_1030_1045 : Event                                 Waits    Time (s)
  (ms)   Time Wait Class
29Jan2010_1030_1045 : ------------------------------ ------------ -----------
------ ------ ----------
29Jan2010_1030_1045 : db file sequential read           4,912,142      50,169
    10   40.7   User I/O
29Jan2010_1030_1045 : CPU time                                         45,456
         36.9
29Jan2010_1030_1045 : latch: cache buffers chains       1,347,911      12,255
     9   10.0 Concurrenc
29Jan2010_1030_1045 : latch: cache buffer handles       1,364,489      10,662
     8    8.7      Other
29Jan2010_1030_1045 : log file sync                       482,281       7,101
    15    5.8     Commit
29Jan2010_1030_1045 :
-------------------------------------------------------------     
DIAGNOSTIC ANALYSIS:
--------------------
See below
WORKAROUND:
-----------
None
RELATED BUGS:
-------------
REPRODUCIBILITY:
----------------
TEST CASE:
----------
STACK TRACE:
------------
SUPPORTING INFORMATION:
-----------------------
24 HOUR CONTACT INFORMATION FOR P1 BUGS:
----------------------------------------
DIAL-IN INFORMATION:
--------------------
IMPACT DATE:
------------ 
Notes so far:
There seems to be 5 - 12% increase across a number of statistics
between the OK sample and the problem sample.
eg:                          Total           per second  per TX
  26th> execute count       6,322,503        7,025.2      14.6
  29th> execute count       6,828,911        7,552.3      14.7
        8% increase in execute count
  26th> data blocks consistent reads - u 16,567,225  18,408.4  38.2
  29th> data blocks consistent reads - u 18,700,073  20,681.1  40.3
        12.6% increase in consistent read undo records applied
cache buffer handles
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
There is about an 8% increase in gets of this latch between
the two reports:
                               Gets        miss%   wait time
  26th> cache buffer handles  80,320,092   21.0        56
  29th> cache buffer handles  87,158,750   55.9     10661
And the latch was already showing 21% miss rate before so was
showing signs of being close to becoming a problem.
The latch misses stats show:
                            Location      Sleeps   Waiter Sleeps
   cache buffer handles     kcbzgs        726,520  832,967
   cache buffer handles     kcbzfs        638,106  531,875
This latch is used just to get / release buffer state objects.
Each process caches up to "_db_handles_cached" of these against
its own process so once we are warmed up and have processes
then we should only use this latch if we are after pinning more
than 5 buffers in the process state.
As the misses seem balanced across kcbzgs and kcbzfs then the
gets do not appear to be due to warming up so this points at
SQLs on the system needing to pin more than 5 buffers at a
time. If we increase "_db_handles_cached" then we should be able
to alleviate the load on this latch.
eg: See PID 4174 from yesterday we see it has 9 buffers pinned
     and is running:
       SELECT   /*+ LEADING (PROD, ITM, ORDX)
          INDEX (ITM S_ORDER_ITEM_BT_W1_X )*/ ...
     So we can see there are SQLs needing many more than 5 buffers
     pinned at a time.
*** 01/29/10 10:06 am ***
cache buffers chains
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~            GETS           Miss%
26th>  cache buffers chains    866,844,547    1.0    0.0     83
29th>  cache buffers chains    900,769,954    1.4    0.1  12258
        4% increase in gets , large increase in wait time.
Previous miss rate was 1%, now 1.4%.
James already checked and mostly the spread looks reasonable
  across child latches.
                                           per second
     26th>     Transactions:                481.56
     29th>     Transactions:                513.79
               6.5% more transactions processed.
This is looking like increased load is starting to see the
latch contention. It may be sensible here to look at the
higher "buffer gets" SQLs to see if they really are well
tuned. eg: 8y9msp8p3gv23 in the 1130-1145 reports are
showing increased executions but also increased buffers
per execution. It would seem sensible to check out the
plans and use of the top buffer gets SQLs.
It would also be wise to confirm we are not hitting bug 6455161
as that affects this release and I cannot see that patch in place.
ie: Verify:
     select owner||'.'||Object_name||'.'||subobject_name
       from dba_objects
      where object_id<>data_object_id
        and object_type like 'INDEX%'
      order by owner,object_name,subobject_name;
That would not be a difference from 26th but if this is hit
you gets may be far higher than needed for certains types of
query.
*** 01/29/10 02:14 pm *** (CHG: Sta->11)
*** 01/29/10 02:14 pm ***
*** 01/29/10 02:40 pm *** (CHG: Sta->16)
*** 01/29/10 03:03 pm ***
*** 01/29/10 11:33 pm ***
Many of the indexes are on SIEBEL objects so
bug 6455161 looks like it could occur here.
*** 01/30/10 12:02 am ***
*** 01/30/10 12:41 am ***
I checked a few top buffer gets SQLs from older AWR that we have
awrrpt_1_67673_67677 . It looks like the heaviest SQLs are
probably not using indexes which are exposed to 6455161 but a couple
may be:
av5skvp0mkxm1
  SELECT /*+ ALL_ROWS */ T3.CONFLICT_ID, T3.LAST_UPD ...
  FROM SIEBEL.S_LST_OF_VAL T1, SIEBEL.S_SRM_ACTION T2, SIEBEL.S_SRM_ACTION T3
   ...
  Indexes on the q1.log list which might be used by that query in NL:
    SIEBEL.S_SRM_ACTION_M1    SIEBEL.S_SRM_ACTION_P1
    SIEBEL.S_SRM_ACTION_U1
    SIEBEL.S_SRM_ACT_PARAM_P1 SIEBEL.S_SRM_ACT_PARAM_U1
7khg9mx4cv5c5
  Queries from SIEBEL.S_ORG_EXT with lots of other tables
  Might use SIEBEL.S_ORG_EXT_M1 from the list
*** 01/30/10 12:59 am ***
=====
>>> Side issue unrelated to the issue here:
      From patch list patches_28012010.lis
      customer has 6868080 installed. This was superceded by 8244734
=====
*** 01/30/10 07:06 am *** (CHG: Sta->10)
*** 01/30/10 07:06 am ***
Suggestions for this:
a> Set "_db_handles_cached" >= 10
b> Get and install a patch for bug 6455161
    This seems like this is minimal impact at present
    as problem indexes are not used in the top buffer
    gets SQLs BUT one index rebuild could lead to mass
    problems, and it may give some small reductions
    in buffer gets on certain SQLs, just not the top
    ones.
    It is a small focused fix with no clashes on current
    list.
c> Double check some of the top buffer gets SQL plans.
    They may be the best they could be but are worth
    checking as there is little in the AWRs to show
    any special reason for cache buffers chains increase
    other than the slightly higher workload.
*** 02/01/10 07:32 am ***
>> SQL "av5skvp0mkxm1" may be susceptible to 6455161.
*** 02/01/10 08:03 am ***
Reviewing level of "_db_handles_cached" as some of the top
SQLs seem very deep NL outer.

Testing this here.
*** 02/01/10 11:05 am ***
For repeatedly executed deep NL SQLs higher handle caching should
improve loading on the "cache buffer handles" latch, but it
has no impact on the chains latch as NLs and NL outers keep buffers
pinned anyway.

So suggestions are still>>
Set "_db_handles_cached" >= 40 (given nested depth of some SQL)
   See if extra memory should be added to shared pool to accomodate that
Install 6455161
Drill more into SQL to see if any can be improved esp wrt buffer
  gets needed .
Also
   Recheck V$latch_children spread for cache buffers chains
   and recheck X$BH blocks on warmest children
   See if there is any session skew on the latch waits
   (any sessions more prone to waits than others)

该note所述case与我们的情况相似,经过排查发现最有”嫌疑“的SQL语句中也存在大量的Nested Loop外连接。这似乎是siebel应用一个普遍存在的问题,note中的客户最初发现的症结也是cache buffer handles栓等待问题,Oracle MOS最后给出的建议是:

1.增大db_handles_cache 到10以上,最后又建议增加到40以上

2. 这个note中客户的数据库版本是sparc(64 bit) 10.2.0.3, MOS建议在此基础上应用Bug 6455161的one-off patch

3.检查有大量buffer gets的SQL语句的执行计划

转储控制文件信息

当前控制文件的内容可以通过CONTROLF dump以文本形式转储到实例参数指定的目录下。

各级别CONTROLF转储的区别:

转储级别 转储内容
1 仅包含文件头信息
2 包括文件头,数据库信息记录,检查点进程记录
3 所有记录类型,针对循环重用的记录类型仅保留最早及最近的记录
4 如上,包含4条最新的可重用类型的记录
5+ 如上,包含的可重用类型记录为2*level条
SQL> oradebug setmypid;
Statement processed.
SQL> oradebug dump controlf 3;
Statement processed.
SQL> oradebug tracefile_name;
/s01/rac10g/admin/PROD/udump/prod_ora_3710.trc

以下例而言,使用oradebug命令启动转储,将会把当前控制文件信息以文本形式转储到该服务进程对应的用户转储文件中,文本中记录了level 3所对应的内容。

SQL> oradebug setmypid;
Statement processed.
SQL> oradebug dump controlf 3;
Statement processed.
SQL> oradebug tracefile_name;
/s01/rac10g/admin/PROD/udump/prod_ora_3710.trc

oradebug必须以SYSDBA形式登陆后方能使用,你也可以以非SYSDBA的身份通过alter session形式启动转储:

SQL> alter session set events 'immediate trace name controlf level 3';
Session altered.

[gview file=”http://askmaclean.com/wp-content/uploads/resource/Controlfile.doc”]

巧用close_trace命令释放误删trace文件

可能很多朋友都遇到过这样的情况,在UNIX/Linux上定期清理Oracle日志文件夹时可能删除到仍被后台进程open着的trace文件,即某些后台进程一直持有着这些”被已经误删了的“打开文件的描述符(fd),这种情况下文件系统上该文件实际占用的空间是不会被释放的,这就造成使用df命令查看文件系统剩余空间和用du命令查看文件夹空间使用量时数值不一致的问题。此外因为是后台进程持有这些打开文件描述符,所以我们无法像kill服务进程一样来解决该问题(部分后台进程是可以kill的,不建议这样做)。oradebug是sqlplus中威力强大的debug命令,我们可以通过该命令发起多种trace/dump,其中也包括了close_trace事件;close_trace事件可以让指定进程关闭其正持有的trace文件。

下面我们就来演示下相关操作:

[maclean@rh2 ~]$ ps -ef|grep ora_|grep -v grep
maclean   7281     1  0 16:35 ?        00:00:00 ora_pmon_PROD
maclean   7283     1  0 16:35 ?        00:00:00 ora_psp0_PROD
maclean   7285     1  0 16:35 ?        00:00:00 ora_mman_PROD
maclean   7287     1  0 16:35 ?        00:00:00 ora_dbw0_PROD
maclean   7289     1  0 16:35 ?        00:00:00 ora_lgwr_PROD
maclean   7291     1  0 16:35 ?        00:00:00 ora_ckpt_PROD
maclean   7293     1  0 16:35 ?        00:00:00 ora_smon_PROD
maclean   7295     1  0 16:35 ?        00:00:00 ora_reco_PROD
maclean   7297     1  0 16:35 ?        00:00:00 ora_cjq0_PROD
maclean   7299     1  0 16:35 ?        00:00:00 ora_mmon_PROD
maclean   7301     1  0 16:35 ?        00:00:00 ora_mmnl_PROD
maclean   7303     1  0 16:35 ?        00:00:00 ora_d000_PROD
maclean   7305     1  0 16:35 ?        00:00:00 ora_s000_PROD
maclean   7313     1  0 16:35 ?        00:00:00 ora_qmnc_PROD
maclean   7430     1  0 16:35 ?        00:00:00 ora_q000_PROD
maclean   7438     1  0 16:36 ?        00:00:00 ora_q001_PROD
/* lgwr是著名的Oracle后台进程,在这个启动的实例中其系统进程号为7289*/
[maclean@rh2 ~]$ ls -l /proc/7289/fd        /* linux上的proc文件系统可以很方便我们探测进程信息*/
total 0
lr-x------ 1 maclean oinstall 64 Jul 26 16:38 0 -> /dev/null
lr-x------ 1 maclean oinstall 64 Jul 26 16:38 1 -> /dev/null
lr-x------ 1 maclean oinstall 64 Jul 26 16:38 10 -> /dev/zero
lr-x------ 1 maclean oinstall 64 Jul 26 16:38 11 -> /dev/zero
lr-x------ 1 maclean oinstall 64 Jul 26 16:38 12 -> /s01/rac10g/rdbms/mesg/oraus.msb
lrwx------ 1 maclean oinstall 64 Jul 26 16:38 13 -> /s01/rac10g/dbs/hc_PROD.dat
lrwx------ 1 maclean oinstall 64 Jul 26 16:38 14 -> /s01/rac10g/dbs/lkPROD
lrwx------ 1 maclean oinstall 64 Jul 26 16:38 15 -> /s01/rac10g/oradata/PROD/controlfile/o1_mf_64q6xphj_.ctl
lrwx------ 1 maclean oinstall 64 Jul 26 16:38 16 -> /s01/rac10g/flash_recovery_area/PROD/controlfile/o1_mf_64q6xpms_.ctl
lrwx------ 1 maclean oinstall 64 Jul 26 16:38 17 -> /s01/rac10g/oradata/PROD/onlinelog/o1_mf_1_64q6xrsr_.log
lrwx------ 1 maclean oinstall 64 Jul 26 16:38 18 -> /s01/rac10g/flash_recovery_area/PROD/onlinelog/o1_mf_1_64q6xsoy_.log
lrwx------ 1 maclean oinstall 64 Jul 26 16:38 19 -> /s01/rac10g/oradata/PROD/onlinelog/o1_mf_2_64q6xths_.log
l-wx------ 1 maclean oinstall 64 Jul 26 16:38 2 -> /s01/rac10g/admin/PROD/bdump/prod_lgwr_7289.trc
lrwx------ 1 maclean oinstall 64 Jul 26 16:38 20 -> /s01/rac10g/flash_recovery_area/PROD/onlinelog/o1_mf_2_64q6xv9o_.log
lrwx------ 1 maclean oinstall 64 Jul 26 16:38 21 -> /s01/rac10g/oradata/PROD/onlinelog/o1_mf_3_64q6xw1b_.log
lrwx------ 1 maclean oinstall 64 Jul 26 16:38 22 -> /s01/rac10g/flash_recovery_area/PROD/onlinelog/o1_mf_3_64q6xwv0_.log
lrwx------ 1 maclean oinstall 64 Jul 26 16:38 23 -> /s01/rac10g/oradata/PROD/datafile/o1_mf_system_64q6wd5j_.dbf
lrwx------ 1 maclean oinstall 64 Jul 26 16:38 24 -> /s01/rac10g/oradata/PROD/datafile/o1_mf_undotbs1_64q6wd7f_.dbf
lrwx------ 1 maclean oinstall 64 Jul 26 16:38 25 -> /s01/rac10g/oradata/PROD/datafile/o1_mf_sysaux_64q6wd5m_.dbf
lrwx------ 1 maclean oinstall 64 Jul 26 16:38 26 -> /s01/rac10g/oradata/PROD/datafile/o1_mf_users_64q6wd89_.dbf
lrwx------ 1 maclean oinstall 64 Jul 26 16:38 27 -> /s01/rac10g/oradata/PROD/datafile/o1_mf_temp_64q6xyox_.tmp
lr-x------ 1 maclean oinstall 64 Jul 26 16:38 28 -> /s01/rac10g/rdbms/mesg/oraus.msb
lr-x------ 1 maclean oinstall 64 Jul 26 16:38 3 -> /dev/null
lr-x------ 1 maclean oinstall 64 Jul 26 16:38 4 -> /dev/null
l-wx------ 1 maclean oinstall 64 Jul 26 16:38 5 -> /s01/rac10g/admin/PROD/udump/prod_ora_7279.trc
l-wx------ 1 maclean oinstall 64 Jul 26 16:38 6 -> /s01/rac10g/admin/PROD/bdump/alert_PROD.log
lrwx------ 1 maclean oinstall 64 Jul 26 16:38 7 -> /s01/rac10g/dbs/lkinstPROD (deleted)
lrwx------ 1 maclean oinstall 64 Jul 26 16:38 8 -> /s01/rac10g/dbs/hc_PROD.dat
l-wx------ 1 maclean oinstall 64 Jul 26 16:38 9 -> /s01/rac10g/admin/PROD/bdump/alert_PROD.log
/*可以看到lgwr进程相关trace文件为/s01/rac10g/admin/PROD/bdump/prod_lgwr_7289.trc,对应打开文件描述符为2*/
[maclean@rh2 ~]$ ls -lh /s01/rac10g/admin/PROD/bdump/prod_lgwr_7289.trc
-rw-r----- 1 maclean oinstall 1.7M Jul 26 16:37 /s01/rac10g/admin/PROD/bdump/prod_lgwr_7289.trc
[maclean@rh2 ~]$ rm -f /s01/rac10g/admin/PROD/bdump/prod_lgwr_7289.trc
/*尝试删除该trace文件*/
[maclean@rh2 ~]$ ls -l /proc/7289/fd|grep lgwr
l-wx------ 1 maclean oinstall 64 Jul 26 16:38 2 -> /s01/rac10g/admin/PROD/bdump/prod_lgwr_7289.trc (deleted)
/*文件已处在deleted状态,但lgwr进程仍持有该文件相关的文件描述符,这个时候该文件占有的空间并不会被释放*/
[maclean@rh2 ~]$ lsof|grep lgwr
oracle 7289   maclean    2w   REG 8,2   1702391 3867134 /s01/rac10g/admin/PROD/bdump/prod_lgwr_7289.trc (deleted)
[maclean@rh2 ~]$ sqlplus / as sysdba
SQL*Plus: Release 10.2.0.5.0 - Production on Mon Jul 26 17:03:04 2010
Copyright (c) 1982, 2010, Oracle.  All Rights Reserved.
Connected to:
Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.2.0.5.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
SQL> oradebug setospid 7289;
Oracle pid: 6, Unix process pid: 7289, image: oracle@rh2 (LGWR)
SQL> oradebug flush;             /*写出trace buffer内容到trace文件*/
Statement processed.
SQL> oradebug close_trace;
Statement processed.
/*close_trace能够释放指定Oracle进程正打开着的文件,To close the current trace file use*/
SQL> host
[maclean@rh2 ~]$ lsof|grep lgwr
[maclean@rh2 ~]$ ls -l /proc/7289/fd/|grep lgwr
[maclean@rh2 ~]$
/* 从进程相关的fd文件夹中查找不到原来的trace文件;close_trace命令成功释放了该文件,并回收了磁盘空间。*/

【书籍推荐】Expert Oracle Practices

类似于《Oracle dba日记》,由国外一群Oracle专家合著,够fashion!

Expert_Oracle_Practices

_shared_pool_reserved_pct or shared_pool_reserved_size with ASMM

共享池是Oracle著名的SGA的一个重要组成部分,当我们尝试从共享池中分配较大的连续区域时(默认来说是4400bytes),我们可能会用到共享池中的保留区域(也叫保留池);注意Oracle总是会先尝试扫描普通共享池的空闲列表,之后才尝试扫描保留池的空闲列表,无论所需分配的内存块是否超过隐式参数_shared_pool_reserved_min_alloc所指定的值。

什么?你看到过的4031描述文档是用以下伪代码描述分配流程的:

large, scan reserved list
if (chunk found)
check chunk size and perhaps truncate
if (chunk is not found)
scan regular free list
if (chunk found)
check chunk size and perhaps truncate
all done
if (chunk is not found)
do LRU operations and repeat
small, scan regular free list
if (chunk found)
check chunk size and perhaps truncate
all done
if (chunk is not found)
do LRU operations and repeat

那么来看看以下测试:

SQL> alter system set "_shared_pool_reserved_pct"=5 scope=spfile;
System altered.
SQL> startup frce;
SP2-0714: invalid combination of STARTUP options
SQL> startup force;
ORACLE instance started.
Total System Global Area 3154116608 bytes
Fixed Size                  2099616 bytes
Variable Size            2197816928 bytes
Database Buffers          939524096 bytes
Redo Buffers               14675968 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.
SQL>  select free_space from v$shared_pool_reserved;
FREE_SPACE
----------
3525368
SQL> SELECT x.ksppinm NAME, y.ksppstvl VALUE, x.ksppdesc describ
2   FROM SYS.x$ksppi x, SYS.x$ksppcv y
3   WHERE x.inst_id = USERENV ('Instance')
4   AND y.inst_id = USERENV ('Instance')
5   AND x.indx = y.indx
6  AND x.ksppinm LIKE '%_shared_pool_reserved_min_alloc%';
NAME                            VALU DESCRIB
------------------------------- ---- ---------------------------------------------------------------------
_shared_pool_reserved_min_alloc 4400 minimum allocation size in bytes for reserved area of shared pool
SQL> select count(*) from x$ksmsp where ksmchsiz>4400 and ksmchcom!='free memory';
COUNT(*)
----------
64
SQL>  exec dbms_workload_repository.create_snapshot;
PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.
SQL> select count(*) from x$ksmsp where ksmchsiz>4400 and ksmchcom!='free memory';
COUNT(*)
----------
67                            /* 方才调用的存储过程成功在共享池中分配到3个大于4400 byte的Chunk,接下来看保留池大小变化)
SQL>  select free_space from v$shared_pool_reserved;
FREE_SPACE
----------
3525368               /* 保留池大小没有发生变化,很显然3个大于4400 byte的Chunk是从regular free list上获取的,而非reserved free list/

以上实验中我们通过调用awr快照存储过程,模拟了从共享池中分配大于4400字节Chunk的操作,实验结果是在保留池有足够空闲空间的情况下,Oracle仍尝试在普通共享池区域中分配了这些连续内存,故而通过查询内部视图x$ksmsp虽然发现了多出了三个大于4400 byte的Chunk,然而保留池的空闲量并未减少。由此可证即便是要分配大于4400字节的内存块,Oracle也会先尝试搜索普通空闲列表,在普通空闲列表上无适应尺寸的连续空间时,才会尝试扫描保留池的空闲列表。

言归正题,我们可以通过2个参数控制保留池的大小:shared_pool_reserved_size和_shared_pool_reserved_pct。这2个参数的区别在于普通参数shared_pool_reserved_size以数值形式制定保留池的大小,这个数值采用在10g的ASMM(自动管理的SGA内存管理)特性的环境中是不会随共享池的大小变化而浮动的;不同于此,隐式参数_shared_pool_reserved_pct作为一个比例值,可以协同ASMM中共享池的变化而适应变化。在讨论经典4031错误的数个文档中,都有介绍到如果在ASMM环境中,设置_shared_pool_reserved_pct往往要好过shared_pool_reserved_size,它使你的共享池更具可收缩性!

纸上得来终觉浅,我们来看看_shared_pool_reserved_pct的实际效果:

SQL> alter system set sga_max_size=3000M scope=spfile;
System altered.
SQL> alter system set sga_target=3000M scope=spfile;
System altered.
SQL> alter system set shared_pool_size=500M;
System altered.
SQL> alter system set "_shared_pool_reserved_pct"=50 scope=spfile;
System altered.
SQL> startup force ;
ORACLE instance started.
Total System Global Area 3154116608 bytes
Fixed Size                  2099616 bytes
Variable Size             570426976 bytes
Database Buffers         2566914048 bytes
Redo Buffers               14675968 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.
SQL> select free_space from v$shared_pool_reserved;
FREE_SPACE
----------
21158280
SQL> alter system set shared_pool_size=2000M ;  /*ASMM下手动修改shared_pool_size,模拟共享池自动扩展的情况*/
System altered.
SQL> select free_space from v$shared_pool_reserved;
FREE_SPACE
----------
21158280                          /*  ohhh!好像跟我们预期的差别挺大,保留池大小没变*/
让我们跑下这段产生反复硬解析的SQL:
begin
for i in 1..200000 loop
execute immediate 'select 2 from dual where 1='||i;
end loop;
end;
/
SQL> select free_space from v$shared_pool_reserved;
FREE_SPACE
----------
296215920                                          /* 这样好了,我们如愿了,SGA真"动态" /
SQL>  alter system set shared_pool_size=300M;   /*尝试收缩ASMM下的共享池*/
System altered.
SQL>  alter system flush shared_pool;
System altered.
SQL> select free_space from v$shared_pool_reserved;
FREE_SPACE
----------
296215920                           /* 我们甚至无法flush 掉这些内存,这挺要命的 /
SQL> select name ,value/1024/1024 "SIZE MB" from v$system_parameter where name in ('sga_target','sga_max_size','shared_pool_size','db_cache_size','java_pool_size','large_pool_size','db_keep_cache_size');
NAME                    SIZE MB
-------------------- ----------
sga_max_size               3008
shared_pool_size            304
large_pool_size              16
java_pool_size               16
sga_target                 3008
db_cache_size               512
db_keep_cache_size            0
可以看到我们还有很多“没有分配”的SGA内存,我们来加大高速缓存看看:
SQL> alter system set db_cache_size=1000M;
alter system set db_cache_size=1000M
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-32017: failure in updating SPFILE
ORA-00384: Insufficient memory to grow cache      /* ohh 因为无法回收保留池的大量内存,导致了SGA其他组件无法扩展/

_shared_pool_reserved_pct的默认值5%可以满足绝大多数情况,通过上述实验证明设置该percent参数可以使保留池大小随SGA动态调整而扩大;但通过再次调整shared_pool_size和flush shared_pool手段都无法回收过度分配的保留池空间,这会导致其他组件无法正常扩展;因而我们在10gASMM的背景下,通过设置_shared_pool_reserved_pct可以获得更好的效果,但因为存在回收空间的问题,该参数也不宜设置过大,如果默认值在您的场景中显得过小,那么您可以尝试使用5-20这个区间内的值,超过20%的话往往就会造成负面的影响了。

ora-00600:[17281], [1001]一例

检查告警日志发现出现ora-600:[17281],[1001]记录,该数据库版本为10.2.0.4:

ORA-00600: internal error code, arguments: [17281], [1001], [0x70000042F5E54F8], [], [], [], [], []
ORA-01001: invalid cursor

分析该600错误产生的trace文件,发现当时运行的语句是一段匿名块:

Current SQL statement for this session:
declare
t_owner varchar2(30);
t_name  varchar2(30);
procedure check_mview is
dummy integer;
begin
if :object_type = ‘TABLE’ then
select 1 into dummy
from sys.all_objects
where owner = :object_owner
and object_name = :object_name
and object_type = ‘MATERIALIZED VIEW’
and rownum = 1;
:object_type := ‘MATERIALIZED VIEW’;
end if;
exception
when others then null;
end;
begin
:sub_object := null;
if :deep != 0 then
begin
if :part2 is null then
select constraint_type, owner, constraint_name
into :object_type, :object_owner, :object_name
from sys.all_constraints c
where c.constraint_name = :part1 and c.owner = user
and rownum = 1;
else
select constraint_type, owner, constraint_name, :part3
into :object_type, :object_owner, :object_name, :sub_object
from sys.all_constraints c
where c.constraint_name = :part2 and c.owner = :part1
and rownum = 1;
end if;
if :object_type = ‘P’ then :object_type := ‘PRIMARY KEY’; end if;
if :object_type = ‘U’ then :object_type := ‘UNIQUE KEY’; end if;
if :object_type = ‘R’ then :object_type := ‘FOREIGN KEY’; end if;
if :object_type = ‘C’ then :object_type := ‘CHECK CONSTRAINT’; end if;
return;
exception
when no_data_found then null;
end;
end if;
:sub_object := :part2;
if (:part2 is null) or (:part1 != user) then
begin
select object_type, user, :part1
into :object_type, :object_owner, :object_name
from sys.all_objects
where owner = user
and object_name = :part1
and object_type in (‘MATERIALIZED VIEW’, ‘TABLE’, ‘VIEW’, ‘SEQUENCE’, ‘PROCEDURE’, ‘FUNCTION’, ‘PACKAGE’, ‘TYPE’, ‘TRIGGER’, ‘SYNONYM’)
and rownum = 1;
if :object_type = ‘SYNONYM’ then
select s.table_owner, s.table_name
into t_owner, t_name
from sys.all_synonyms s
where s.synonym_name = :part1
and s.owner = user
and rownum = 1;
select o.object_type, o.owner, o.object_name
into :object_type, :object_owner, :object_name
from sys.all_objects o
where o.owner = t_owner
and o.object_name = t_name
and object_type in (‘MATERIALIZED VIEW’, ‘TABLE’, ‘VIEW’, ‘SEQUENCE’, ‘PROCEDURE’, ‘FUNCTION’, ‘PACKAGE’, ‘TYPE’, ‘TRIGGER’, ‘SYNONYM’)
and rownum = 1;
end if;
:sub_object := :part2;
if :part3 is not null then
:sub_object := :sub_object || ‘.’ || :part3;
end if;
check_mview;
return;
exception
when no_data_found then null;
end;
end if;
begin
select s.table_owner, s.table_name
into t_owner, t_name
from sys.all_synonyms s
where s.synonym_name = :part1
and s.owner = ‘PUBLIC’
and rownum = 1;
select o.object_type, o.owner, o.object_name
into :object_type, :object_owner, :object_name
from sys.all_objects o
where o.owner = t_owner
and o.object_name = t_name
and object_type in (‘MATERIALIZED VIEW’, ‘TABLE’, ‘VIEW’, ‘SEQUENCE’, ‘PROCEDURE’, ‘FUNCTION’, ‘PACKAGE’, ‘TYPE’, ‘TRIGGER’, ‘SYNONYM’)
and rownum = 1;
check_mview;
return;
exception
when no_data_found then null;
end;
:sub_object := :part3;
begin
select o.object_type, o.owner, o.object_name
into :object_type, :object_owner, :object_name
from sys.all_objects o
where o.owner = :part1
and o.object_name = :part2
and object_type in (‘MATERIALIZED VIEW’, ‘TABLE’, ‘VIEW’, ‘SEQUENCE’, ‘PROCEDURE’, ‘FUNCTION’, ‘PACKAGE’, ‘TYPE’, ‘TRIGGER’, ‘SYNONYM’)
and rownum = 1;
check_mview;
return;
exception
when no_data_found then null;
end;
begin
if :part2 is null and :part3 is null
then
select ‘USER’, null, :part1
into :object_type, :object_owner, :object_name
from sys.all_users u
where u.username = :part1
and rownum = 1;
return;
end if;
exception
when no_data_found then null;
end;
begin
if :part2 is null and :part3 is null and :deep != 0
then
select ‘ROLE’, null, :part1
into :object_type, :object_owner, :object_name
from sys.session_roles r
where r.role = :part1
and rownum = 1;
return;
end if;
exception
when no_data_found then null;
end;
:object_owner := null;
:object_type := null;
:object_name := null;
:sub_object := null;
end;
—– Call Stack Trace —–
calling              call     entry                argument values in hex
location             type     point                (? means dubious value)
——————– ——– ——————– —————————-
ksedst+001c          bl       ksedst1              088424844 ? 041124844 ?
ksedmp+0290          bl       ksedst               104A54870 ?
ksfdmp+0018          bl       03F30204
kgeriv+0108          bl       _ptrgl
kgeasi+0118          bl       kgeriv               1104722C8 ? 1101B87C0 ?
104AFA0FC ? 7000000100067F8 ?
000000000 ?
kgicli+0188          bl       kgeasi               110195A58 ? 110447310 ?
438100004381 ? 200000002 ?
200000002 ? 000000000 ?
0000003E9 ? 000000002 ?
kgidlt+0398          bl       kgicli               110450A70 ? 104C734E0 ?
kgidel+0018          bl       kgidlt               FFFFFFFFFFF90B8 ? 000000000 ?
000000003 ? 000000000 ?
FFFFFFFFFFF9468 ?
perabo+00ac          bl       kgidel               FFFFFFFFFFF8D20 ? 0000000FF ?
perdcs+0050          bl       perabo               000000000 ? 000000820 ?
000000000 ?
peidcs+01dc          bl       perdcs               110477618 ? 000000000 ?
kkxcls+00a4          bl       peidcs               FFFFFFFFFFF9468 ? 110477618 ?
kxsClean+0044        bl       kkxcls               1100DD338 ?
kxsCloseXsc+0444     bl       kxsClean             FFFFFFFFFFF9760 ?
kksCloseCursor+031c  bl       kxsCloseXsc          110478688 ? 110281FB0 ?
opicca+00c4          bl       kksCloseCursor       104BD9640 ?
opiclo+00a0          bl       opicca               10013D940 ?
kpoclsa+0050         bl       03F32B00
opiodr+0ae0          bl       _ptrgl
ttcpip+1020          bl       _ptrgl
opitsk+1124          bl       01F9F2A0
opiino+0990          bl       opitsk               000000000 ? 000000000 ?
opiodr+0ae0          bl       _ptrgl
opidrv+0484          bl       01F9E0E8
sou2o+0090           bl       opidrv               3C02DC1BBC ? 44065F000 ?
FFFFFFFFFFFF3A0 ?
opimai_real+01bc     bl       01F9B9F4
main+0098            bl       opimai_real          000000000 ? 000000000 ?
__start+0098         bl       main                 000000000 ? 000000000 ?



first argument为17281,该代码对应为在关闭游标时发生错误事件。
发生错误时的调用栈为:kkxcls->peidcs->perdcs->perabo->kgidel->kgidlt->kgicli,通过以上调用栈与argument信息在600 lookup工具中查询,可以发现bug:[6051353]:

Hdr: 6051353 10.1.0.45 THIN 10.1.0.5 PRODID-972 PORTID-212 ORA-600
Abstract: ORA-600[17281] ORA-[1001]
*** 05/14/07 07:09 am ***
TAR:
----
17450130.600
PROBLEM:
--------
Oracle 10.1.0.5 64-bit
AIX5L 64-bit server
Following the application of CPUJAN2007 patch, the database is giving
internal errors.
Tha alert log sjows:
  ORA-600: internal error code, arguments: [17281], [1001],
[0x70000001E792DC8], [], [], [], [], []
  ORA-1001: invalid cursor
Trace file shows the failing statement is an insert.
INSERT INTO V_RPMORGRESOURCEPOSITION
(ORGID, RESOURCEID, EFFECTIVEDAY, TERMINATIONDAY, OWNEDMW,
COMMITTEDMW, AVAILABLEMW, UNOFFEREDMW, FRRCOMMITTEDMW )
SELECT :B12 , :B11 , EFFECTIVEDAY, LEAST(:B10 , :B9 ),
NVL(OWNEDMW,0) + NVL(:B8 ,0), NVL(COMMITTEDMW,0) + NVL(:B7 ,0),
NVL(AVAILABLEMW,0) + NVL(:B6 ,0), NVL(UNOFFEREDMW,0) + NVL(:B5 ,0),
NVL(FRRCOMMITTEDMW,0) + NVL(:B4 ,0)
FROM RPMORGRESOURCEPOSITION
WHERE ORGID = :B3 AND RESOURCEID = :B2 AND EFFECTIVEDAY = :B1
    Other information:
        O/S info: user: , term: , ospid: 1234, machine: esu03als
        client info: smartino@PJM
        application name: eRpm
        action name: QueryZonalLoadObligationDetail
        last wait for 'SQL*Net message from client'
DIAGNOSTIC ANALYSIS:
--------------------
the function stack exactly matches 4359111
kgicli kgidlt kgidel perabo
    Bug 4359111 - STRESS ORA-600[17281] WHEN RUNNING GMT APPLICATION13
But this is already fixed in 10.1.0.5
The 'client' (esu03als) is a Linux server and there is no oracle running
there.
The AIX SysAdmin. who manages the esu03als server says this about the
application:
    "The way RPM connects to our database is by using DBCP (Apache Jakarta
     Project -- see
     As far as I can tell, the release (jar) contained within the RPM
     delivery is version 1.1 of DBCP which was released on 2003-10-20."
This couls also be Bug 5392685/5413487 but tis doesn't seem to have a
resolution.
Also could be Bug 5366763
  possible workaround - set session_cached_cursors to 0
  But this is already set to 0.
Originally the Customer thought this error started after applying CPUJAN2007,
but it is appearing on another database where the CPU patch is not applied.
WORKAROUND:
-----------
none
RELATED BUGS:
-------------
4359111
5413487
5366763
REPRODUCIBILITY:
----------------
intermittent
TEST CASE:
----------
none
STACK TRACE:
------------
          ksedmp ksfdmp kgeriv kgeasi
          kgicli kgidlt kgidel perabo perdcs peidcs kkxcls2 kxtcln
          kxsClean kksCloseCursor opicca opiclo kpoclsa opiodr
          ttcpip opitsk opiino opiodr opidrv sou2o
          main

其调用栈完全一致,可以基本确定2者的关联性。但该文档叙述bug发生在10.1.0.5的AIX版本上,且据称该Bug之前已在“Bug 4359111 – STRESS ORA-600[17281] WHEN RUNNING GMT APPLICATION13”中声明并在10.1.0.5上修复,看起来又是一个伪修复的漏洞。另外一个文档叙述了同样的错误发生在10.2.0.4上:

Hdr: 8337808 10.2.0.4 RDBMS 10.2.0.4 PRG INTERFACE PRODID-5 PORTID-46 ORA-600 4359111
Abstract: ORA-600 [17281] [1001] EVEN AFTER APPLYING THE PATCH 4359111

In prod_ora_12985.trc we see that:
O/S info: user: Arun?Sharma, term: ARUN, ospid: 2556:3300,
machine: BVM-EDP\ARUN
Got the ORA-600 at 2009-04-17 13:27:21 .
From the trace this was likely because the PLSQL block in
cursor #2 has an instantiation entry indicating that it
has cursor #3 open:
INSTANTIATION OBJECT: object=0xf60e9ed0
type="PL/SQL"[0] lock=0xa383a928 handle=0xb48def6c body=(nil)
flags=[40] executions=0
CURSORS: size=4 count=1 next=3
index cursor      tag  context flags
----- ------ -------- -------- ---------------
     2      3 0xf60d56f4 0xf60f832c LRU/PRS/[03]
            ^here
But there is no cursor#3 so it has likely been closed independently
So the immediate thing to do would be to find out what this OS
user (Arun Sharma) was doing at 13.27 on 17th April from the
ARUN machine under OS pid 2556:3300 ?
- what was the client program ?
- what is this clients Oracle RSF version ?
- what was being done in that client at that time.
It is unlikely that the user will remember such fine detail
so you may want to track the alert log closely and as soon
as you seen the ORA-600 find the O/S user , machine etc..
and try to contact them ASAP to confirm what they were doing
etc.. If we can get a handle on the client version / program /
actions that may help. Beyond that the next step is likely
to need a diagnostic on the server side to note cursor close
operations from the client without extranoues additional trace.

From the above update his client is TOAD using 8.0.6.0 on Windows.
TOAD is known to be affected by bug 4359111 so
you should upgrade this client to a version where
bug 4359111 is fixed. (4359111 is a CLIENT SIDE fix)

Marking as an unconfirmed duplicate of bug 4359111
as it looks like some specific client may be connecting
which does not have that patch in place.

与以上文档描述相同,trace中存在以下记录:

INSTANTIATION OBJECT: object=1105e4fe8
type=”PL/SQL”[0] lock=70000044155a8b0 handle=70000042f5e54f8 body=0 level=0
flags=[40] executions=0
CURSORS: size=4 count=3 next=5
index cursor      tag  context flags
—– —— ——– ——– —————
2      4 11049ecc8 110525f60 LRU/PRS/[03]
3      6 11049ecc8 1105261f0 LRU/PRS/[03]
4      5 11049ecc8 110526338 LRU/PRS/[03]

但实际上这里cursor 3所打开的cursor#:4,5,6均不存在,所以cursor# 3也被单独关闭了。文档中问题是由toad引起的,首先toad连接数据库是不需要安装Oracle client的,它通过一些客制化过的c/c++的接口连接到DB;如文档所述可以确定toad V8.0.6.0受到 Bug4359111的影响,而我们的环境中是通过PL/SQL developer连接到数据库的,该工具需要用到Oracle client,而开发人员安装的Oracle client一般为9.2.0.1,极有可能是这一较低版本的客户端软件造成了问题发生,到这里触发Bug的条件基本清晰了。

8i/9i的oracle client虽然仍能够连接到10g,但难保不发生一些兼容性问题或者将早期版本中的Bug再次代入,Oracle对这些连接形式或已不提供技术支持,或提供扩展模式(可能收费)的技术支持。以下列表列出了各版本Server-client的兼容性:



  • #1 – See Note 207319.1
  • #2 – An ORA-3134 error is incorrectly reported if a 10g client tries to connect to an 8.1.7.3 or lower server. See Note 3437884.8 .
  • #3 – An ORA-3134 error is correctly reported when attempting to connect to this version.
  • #4 – There are problems connecting from a 10g client to 8i/9i where one is EBCDIC based. See Note 3564573.8
  • #5 – For connections between 10.2 (or higher) and 9.2 the 9.2 end MUST be at 9.2.0.4 or higher. Connections between 10.2 (or higher) and 9.2.0.1, 9.2.0.2 or 9.2.0.3 are not supported.
  • #6 – For connections between 11.1 (or higher) and 10.1 / 10.2 the 10g end MUST be at 10.1.0.5 / 10.2.0.2 (or higher) respectively in order to use PLSQL between those versions. See Note 4511371.8 for more details.

其实在我们升级或迁移Oracle数据库的时候就因该考虑到客户端软件也需要升级到合适版本才能满足今后兼容性及应用程序健壮度的要求,当然客户端软件并不一定只是oracle client,它可能是jdbc,也许是odbc,也许是dbi等等。

沪ICP备14014813号

沪公网安备 31010802001379号