在Linux上分析硬件检测日志

数据库管理员在数据库的运维过程中或多或少要和操作系统乃至硬件打上交道,分析数据库故障时操作系统日志往往也是一个重要的线索来源。
以Linux操作系统为例,其主要的日志子系统(syslog subsystem)可大致分为三类:即1)用户连接日志 2)进程统计日志 3)系统和服务日志。
前2种在我们进行系统的安全审计及用户监控时可以派上用场,而因操作系统或硬件问题造成的数据库故障,我们往往需要关注系统和服务日志。在Linux上我们最常分析的是/var/log/messages日志文件,该日志文件包含了系统和服务的info信息(除mail,cron等服务外),这里我们要介绍的是/var/log/dmesg日志文件,该日志文件描述了系统开机时BIOS硬件加载成功与否的信息,以及网卡、光驱、软驱驱动和RAID、LVM、IPv6等的配置信息。此日志文件的信息记录存放在内核缓存中,主要用于硬件信息故障检测。用户既可以使用cat /var/log/dmesg命令来查看该日志信息,也直接可以使用dmesg命令来查看该日志信息。如:

[root@nas ~]# dmesg |egrep "sd|eth"
SCSI device sda: 625142448 512-byte hdwr sectors (320073 MB)
sda: Write Protect is off
sda: Mode Sense: 00 3a 00 00
SCSI device sda: drive cache: write back
SCSI device sda: 625142448 512-byte hdwr sectors (320073 MB)
sda: Write Protect is off
sda: Mode Sense: 00 3a 00 00
SCSI device sda: drive cache: write back
 sda: sda1 sda2 sda3 sda4
sd 0:0:0:0: Attached scsi disk sda
eth0: RTL8168d/8111d at 0xffffc20000032000, b8:ac:6f:dc:8b:43, XID 081000c0 IRQ 50
sd 0:0:0:0: Attached scsi generic sg0 type 0
SCSI device sdb: 976773168 512-byte hdwr sectors (500108 MB)
sdb: Write Protect is off
sdb: Mode Sense: 10 00 00 00
sdb: assuming drive cache: write through
SCSI device sdb: 976773168 512-byte hdwr sectors (500108 MB)
sdb: Write Protect is off
sdb: Mode Sense: 10 00 00 00
sdb: assuming drive cache: write through
 sdb: sdb1 sdb2
sd 2:0:0:0: Attached scsi disk sdb
sd 2:0:0:0: Attached scsi generic sg2 type 0
EXT3 FS on sda1, internal journal
EXT3 FS on sda2, internal journal
Adding 5116692k swap on /dev/sda3.  Priority:-1 extents:1 across:5116692k
r8169: eth0: link up
r8169: eth0: link up
eth0: no IPv6 routers present

/* 以上列出了系统识别的scsi硬盘及网卡的信息*/


[root@nas ~]# cat /var/log/messages |grep -i fail
Jan 17 03:04:03 nas udevd-event[2943]: wait_for_sysfs: waiting for 
'/sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1d.7/usb2/2-1/2-1:1.0/host3/target3:0:0/3:0:0:0/ioerr_cnt' failed
Jan 18 04:45:08 nas udevd-event[5138]: wait_for_sysfs: waiting for 
'/sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1d.7/usb2/2-1/2-1:1.0/host8/target8:0:0/8:0:0:0/ioerr_cnt' failed
Jan 18 04:45:08 nas kernel: sdb : READ CAPACITY failed.
Jan 18 04:45:08 nas kernel: sdb : READ CAPACITY failed.

/* 以上列出了硬件检测失败记录 */

[root@nas ~]# dmesg |grep -i err
ACPI: IRQ0 used by override.
ACPI: IRQ2 used by override.
ACPI: IRQ9 used by override.
Using local APIC timer interrupts.
ACPI: Using IOAPIC for interrupt routing
ACPI: PCI Interrupt Routing Table [\_SB_.PCI0._PRT]
ACPI: PCI Interrupt Routing Table [\_SB_.PCI0.P0P1._PRT]
ACPI: PCI Interrupt Routing Table [\_SB_.PCI0.P0P4._PRT]
ACPI: PCI Interrupt Routing Table [\_SB_.PCI0.P0P6._PRT]
ACPI: PCI Interrupt Link [LNKA] (IRQs 3 4 6 7 10 *11 12 14 15)
ACPI: PCI Interrupt Link [LNKB] (IRQs *5)
ACPI: PCI Interrupt Link [LNKC] (IRQs 3 4 6 7 *10 11 12 14 15)
ACPI: PCI Interrupt Link [LNKD] (IRQs 3 4 6 7 10 11 12 14 *15)
ACPI: PCI Interrupt Link [LNKE] (IRQs 3 4 6 7 10 11 12 14 15) *0, disabled.
ACPI: PCI Interrupt Link [LNKF] (IRQs 3 4 6 7 10 11 12 *14 15)
ACPI: PCI Interrupt Link [LNKG] (IRQs *3 4 6 7 10 11 12 14 15)
ACPI: PCI Interrupt Link [LNKH] (IRQs 3 4 6 *7 10 11 12 14 15)
ACPI: PCI Interrupt 0000:00:1c.0[A] -> GSI 17 (level, low) -> IRQ 169
ACPI: PCI Interrupt 0000:00:1c.2[C] -> GSI 18 (level, low) -> IRQ 177
ide: Assuming 33MHz system bus speed for PIO modes; override with idebus=xx
ACPI: PCI Interrupt 0000:00:1a.7[C] -> GSI 18 (level, low) -> IRQ 177
ACPI: PCI Interrupt 0000:00:1d.7[A] -> GSI 23 (level, low) -> IRQ 209
ACPI: PCI Interrupt 0000:00:1a.0[A] -> GSI 16 (level, low) -> IRQ 217
ACPI: PCI Interrupt 0000:00:1a.1[B] -> GSI 21 (level, low) -> IRQ 225
ACPI: PCI Interrupt 0000:00:1d.0[A] -> GSI 23 (level, low) -> IRQ 209
ACPI: PCI Interrupt 0000:00:1d.1[B] -> GSI 19 (level, low) -> IRQ 233
ACPI: PCI Interrupt 0000:00:1d.2[C] -> GSI 18 (level, low) -> IRQ 177
ACPI: PCI Interrupt 0000:00:1f.2[B] -> GSI 19 (level, low) -> IRQ 233
ACPI: PCI Interrupt 0000:00:1f.3[C] -> GSI 18 (level, low) -> IRQ 177
ACPI: PCI Interrupt 0000:02:00.0[A] -> GSI 18 (level, low) -> IRQ 177
ACPI: PCI Interrupt 0000:00:1b.0[A] -> GSI 22 (level, low) -> IRQ 58

/* 以上列出了硬件检测错误记录 */

/var/log/dmesg硬件检测日志的格式较为简单,一般为”device name:message text”的形式。该日志中常见的设备名称有:SCSI,PCI,Memory,loop,Kernel,EXT3,DMA,CPU,Console,BIOS,ata2,ata1,ACPI,floppy,Time等。其中ACPI(Advanced Configuration and Power Interface)即高级电源管理服务,可以看到以上日志中该服务的PCI中断出现了某些问题,而sdb移动磁盘则出现了”READ CAPACITY failed.”(结合之前的日志可能是因为USB外接硬盘未准备好)的失败,若该问题持续可能导致该移动硬盘无法挂载(mount)。

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  1. [root@vbase ~]# lspci -vv
    00:00.0 Host bridge: Intel Corporation Sandy Bridge DRAM Controller (rev 09)
    Control: I/O- Mem+ BusMaster+ SpecCycle- MemWINV- VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx-
    Status: Cap+ 66MHz- UDF- FastB2B+ ParErr- DEVSEL=fast >TAbort- <TAbort- SERR- <PERR- INTx-
    Latency: 0
    Capabilities: [e0] Vendor Specific Information: Len=0c
    Kernel driver in use: agpgart-intel

    00:02.0 VGA compatible controller: Intel Corporation Sandy Bridge Integrated Graphics Controller (rev 09) (prog-if 00 [VGA controller])
    Subsystem: Giga-byte Technology Device d000
    Control: I/O+ Mem+ BusMaster+ SpecCycle- MemWINV- VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx+
    Status: Cap+ 66MHz- UDF- FastB2B+ ParErr- DEVSEL=fast >TAbort- <TAbort- SERR- <PERR- INTx-
    Latency: 0
    Interrupt: pin A routed to IRQ 40
    Region 0: Memory at fb800000 (64-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=4M]
    Region 2: Memory at e0000000 (64-bit, prefetchable) [size=256M]
    Region 4: I/O ports at ff00 [size=64]
    Expansion ROM at [disabled]
    Capabilities: [90] MSI: Enable+ Count=1/1 Maskable- 64bit-
    Address: fee2200c Data: 4159
    Capabilities: [d0] Power Management version 2
    Flags: PMEClk- DSI+ D1- D2- AuxCurrent=0mA PME(D0-,D1-,D2-,D3hot-,D3cold-)
    Status: D0 NoSoftRst- PME-Enable- DSel=0 DScale=0 PME-
    Capabilities: [a4] PCI Advanced Features
    AFCap: TP+ FLR+
    AFCtrl: FLR-
    AFStatus: TP-
    Kernel driver in use: i915
    Kernel modules: i915

    00:16.0 Communication controller: Intel Corporation Cougar Point HECI Controller #1 (rev 04)
    Subsystem: Giga-byte Technology Device 1c3a
    Control: I/O- Mem+ BusMaster+ SpecCycle- MemWINV- VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx-
    Status: Cap+ 66MHz- UDF- FastB2B- ParErr- DEVSEL=fast >TAbort- <TAbort- SERR- TAbort- <TAbort- SERR- TAbort- <TAbort- SERR- <PERR- INTx-
    Latency: 0, Cache Line Size: 4 bytes
    Interrupt: pin A routed to IRQ 42
    Region 0: Memory at fbff8000 (64-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=16K]
    Capabilities: [50] Power Management version 2
    Flags: PMEClk- DSI- D1- D2- AuxCurrent=55mA PME(D0+,D1-,D2-,D3hot+,D3cold+)
    Status: D0 NoSoftRst- PME-Enable- DSel=0 DScale=0 PME-
    Capabilities: [60] MSI: Enable+ Count=1/1 Maskable- 64bit+
    Address: 00000000fee1100c Data: 4171
    Capabilities: [70] Express (v1) Root Complex Integrated Endpoint, MSI 00
    DevCap: MaxPayload 128 bytes, PhantFunc 0, Latency L0s <64ns, L1 <1us
    ExtTag- RBE- FLReset+
    DevCtl: Report errors: Correctable- Non-Fatal- Fatal- Unsupported-
    RlxdOrd- ExtTag- PhantFunc- AuxPwr- NoSnoop-
    MaxPayload 128 bytes, MaxReadReq 128 bytes
    DevSta: CorrErr- UncorrErr- FatalErr- UnsuppReq- AuxPwr+ TransPend-
    LnkCap: Port #0, Speed unknown, Width x0, ASPM unknown, Latency L0 <64ns, L1 TAbort- <TAbort- SERR- TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort- <SERR- Reset- FastB2B-
    PriDiscTmr- SecDiscTmr- DiscTmrStat- DiscTmrSERREn-
    Capabilities: [40] Express (v2) Root Port (Slot+), MSI 00
    DevCap: MaxPayload 128 bytes, PhantFunc 0, Latency L0s <64ns, L1 <1us
    ExtTag- RBE+ FLReset-
    DevCtl: Report errors: Correctable- Non-Fatal- Fatal- Unsupported-
    RlxdOrd- ExtTag- PhantFunc- AuxPwr- NoSnoop-
    MaxPayload 128 bytes, MaxReadReq 128 bytes
    DevSta: CorrErr- UncorrErr- FatalErr- UnsuppReq- AuxPwr+ TransPend-
    LnkCap: Port #1, Speed 5GT/s, Width x4, ASPM L0s, Latency L0 <1us, L1 TAbort- <TAbort- SERR- TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort- <SERR- Reset- FastB2B-
    PriDiscTmr- SecDiscTmr- DiscTmrStat- DiscTmrSERREn-
    Capabilities: [40] Express (v2) Root Port (Slot+), MSI 00
    DevCap: MaxPayload 128 bytes, PhantFunc 0, Latency L0s <64ns, L1 <1us
    ExtTag- RBE+ FLReset-
    DevCtl: Report errors: Correctable- Non-Fatal- Fatal- Unsupported-
    RlxdOrd- ExtTag- PhantFunc- AuxPwr- NoSnoop-
    MaxPayload 128 bytes, MaxReadReq 128 bytes
    DevSta: CorrErr- UncorrErr- FatalErr- UnsuppReq- AuxPwr+ TransPend-
    LnkCap: Port #7, Speed 5GT/s, Width x1, ASPM L0s L1, Latency L0 <512ns, L1 TAbort- <TAbort- SERR- TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort+ <SERR- Reset- FastB2B-
    PriDiscTmr- SecDiscTmr- DiscTmrStat- DiscTmrSERREn-
    Capabilities: [40] Express (v2) Root Port (Slot+), MSI 00
    DevCap: MaxPayload 128 bytes, PhantFunc 0, Latency L0s <64ns, L1 <1us
    ExtTag- RBE+ FLReset-
    DevCtl: Report errors: Correctable- Non-Fatal- Fatal- Unsupported-
    RlxdOrd- ExtTag- PhantFunc- AuxPwr- NoSnoop-
    MaxPayload 128 bytes, MaxReadReq 128 bytes
    DevSta: CorrErr- UncorrErr- FatalErr- UnsuppReq- AuxPwr+ TransPend-
    LnkCap: Port #8, Speed 5GT/s, Width x1, ASPM L0s L1, Latency L0 <512ns, L1 TAbort- <TAbort- SERR- TAbort- <TAbort- SERR- TAbort- <TAbort- <MAbort+ <SERR- Reset- FastB2B-
    PriDiscTmr- SecDiscTmr- DiscTmrStat- DiscTmrSERREn-
    Capabilities: [50] Subsystem: Giga-byte Technology GA-EP45-DS5 Motherboard

    00:1f.0 ISA bridge: Intel Corporation Cougar Point LPC Controller (rev 05)
    Subsystem: Giga-byte Technology Device 5001
    Control: I/O+ Mem+ BusMaster+ SpecCycle- MemWINV- VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR+ FastB2B- DisINTx-
    Status: Cap+ 66MHz- UDF- FastB2B- ParErr- DEVSEL=medium >TAbort- <TAbort- SERR- <PERR- INTx-
    Latency: 0
    Capabilities: [e0] Vendor Specific Information: Len=0c
    Kernel modules: iTCO_wdt

    00:1f.2 IDE interface: Intel Corporation Cougar Point 4 port SATA IDE Controller (rev 05) (prog-if 8f [Master SecP SecO PriP PriO])
    Subsystem: Giga-byte Technology Device b002
    Control: I/O+ Mem+ BusMaster+ SpecCycle- MemWINV- VGASnoop- ParErr- Stepping- SERR- FastB2B- DisINTx-
    Status: Cap+ 66MHz+ UDF- FastB2B+ ParErr- DEVSEL=medium >TAbort- <TAbort- SERR- TAbort- <TAbort- SERR- TAbort- <TAbort- SERR- TAbort- <TAbort- SERR- <PERR- INTx-
    Latency: 0, Cache Line Size: 4 bytes
    Interrupt: pin A routed to IRQ 41
    Region 0: I/O ports at ee00 [size=256]
    Region 2: Memory at fbeff000 (64-bit, prefetchable) [size=4K]
    Region 4: Memory at fbef8000 (64-bit, prefetchable) [size=16K]
    Capabilities: [40] Power Management version 3
    Flags: PMEClk- DSI- D1+ D2+ AuxCurrent=375mA PME(D0+,D1+,D2+,D3hot+,D3cold+)
    Status: D0 NoSoftRst+ PME-Enable- DSel=0 DScale=0 PME-
    Capabilities: [50] MSI: Enable+ Count=1/1 Maskable- 64bit+
    Address: 00000000fee0100c Data: 4161
    Capabilities: [70] Express (v2) Endpoint, MSI 01
    DevCap: MaxPayload 128 bytes, PhantFunc 0, Latency L0s <512ns, L1 <64us
    ExtTag- AttnBtn- AttnInd- PwrInd- RBE+ FLReset-
    DevCtl: Report errors: Correctable- Non-Fatal- Fatal- Unsupported-
    RlxdOrd+ ExtTag- PhantFunc- AuxPwr- NoSnoop-
    MaxPayload 128 bytes, MaxReadReq 4096 bytes
    DevSta: CorrErr+ UncorrErr- FatalErr- UnsuppReq+ AuxPwr+ TransPend-
    LnkCap: Port #0, Speed 2.5GT/s, Width x1, ASPM L0s L1, Latency L0 unlimited, L1 TAbort- <TAbort- SERR- <PERR- INTx-
    Latency: 0, Cache Line Size: 4 bytes
    Interrupt: pin A routed to IRQ 43
    Region 0: Memory at fbdf8000 (64-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=32K]
    Capabilities: [50] Power Management version 3
    Flags: PMEClk- DSI- D1+ D2+ AuxCurrent=0mA PME(D0+,D1+,D2+,D3hot+,D3cold+)
    Status: D0 NoSoftRst- PME-Enable- DSel=0 DScale=0 PME-
    Capabilities: [70] MSI: Enable+ Count=1/4 Maskable+ 64bit+
    Address: 00000000feeff00c Data: 4179
    Masking: 0000000e Pending: 00000000
    Capabilities: [a0] Express (v2) Endpoint, MSI 00
    DevCap: MaxPayload 1024 bytes, PhantFunc 0, Latency L0s <64ns, L1 <1us
    ExtTag+ AttnBtn- AttnInd- PwrInd- RBE+ FLReset+
    DevCtl: Report errors: Correctable- Non-Fatal- Fatal- Unsupported-
    RlxdOrd+ ExtTag- PhantFunc- AuxPwr- NoSnoop+ FLReset-
    MaxPayload 128 bytes, MaxReadReq 512 bytes
    DevSta: CorrErr+ UncorrErr- FatalErr- UnsuppReq+ AuxPwr+ TransPend-
    LnkCap: Port #0, Speed 5GT/s, Width x1, ASPM L0s L1, Latency L0 <1us, L1 <64us
    ClockPM+ Surprise- LLActRep- BwNot-
    LnkCtl: ASPM Disabled; RCB 64 bytes Disabled- Retrain- CommClk-
    ExtSynch- ClockPM- AutWidDis- BWInt- AutBWInt-
    LnkSta: Speed 5GT/s, Width x1, TrErr- Train- SlotClk+ DLActive- BWMgmt- ABWMgmt-
    DevCap2: Completion Timeout: Not Supported, TimeoutDis-
    DevCtl2: Completion Timeout: 50us to 50ms, TimeoutDis-
    LnkCtl2: Target Link Speed: 5GT/s, EnterCompliance- SpeedDis-, Selectable De-emphasis: -6dB
    Transmit Margin: Normal Operating Range, EnterModifiedCompliance- ComplianceSOS-
    Compliance De-emphasis: -6dB
    LnkSta2: Current De-emphasis Level: -6dB
    Capabilities: [100 v1] Advanced Error Reporting
    UESta: DLP- SDES- TLP- FCP- CmpltTO- CmpltAbrt- UnxCmplt- RxOF- MalfTLP- ECRC- UnsupReq- ACSViol-
    UEMsk: DLP- SDES- TLP- FCP- CmpltTO- CmpltAbrt- UnxCmplt- RxOF- MalfTLP- ECRC- UnsupReq- ACSViol-
    UESvrt: DLP+ SDES- TLP- FCP+ CmpltTO- CmpltAbrt- UnxCmplt- RxOF+ MalfTLP+ ECRC- UnsupReq- ACSViol-
    CESta: RxErr- BadTLP- BadDLLP- Rollover- Timeout- NonFatalErr+
    CEMsk: RxErr- BadTLP- BadDLLP- Rollover- Timeout- NonFatalErr+
    AERCap: First Error Pointer: 14, GenCap+ CGenEn- ChkCap+ ChkEn-
    Capabilities: [190 v1] Device Serial Number 01-01-01-01-01-01-01-01
    Kernel driver in use: xhci_hcd
    Kernel modules: xhci-hcd

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